Charles E. Cushing was certified to fly all the
planes featured on this page.
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A chronological list of
these documents, with links to the images, along with other the items, is
currently being created.
Allotment of Pay
Stuttgart AAF, Ark. $6.50 per month to be deducted from pay to
go to the Veterans Administration, Dec 5, 1943
Allotment of Pay
MacDill Field, Tampa Fla., 2nd Lt., $10.00 per month to be
deducted from pay to go to the mother Eliz. Cushing or sister
Frances R. Cushing, Mar 21, 1944
Authorization of Class
B Allotment for Purchase of War Savings Bonds, $50, 2nd Lt. Staging
Sec. 111th AAF bomb unit, Langley Field, Va. Mar-May 1944
Checklists & Info
for Officers Returning to the U.S.
Checklist for officers
returning to the U.S.,
Jan 24, 1945
Returnee to Zone of Interior, Headquarters, 70th Replacement Depot,
APO 652, AAF Station 594 (Stone, Staffordshire, ENG. Feb 3, 1945) See page 2
Statement of compliance
to regulations regarding possession of prohibited items for officers
returning to the U.S., 70th Replacement Depot, APO 652, AAF Station 594,
(Stone, Staffordshire, ENG.) Feb 3, 1945 See reverse side
Table of Contents, page
1, Pilot's Information File,
Probably Jan 1945 See page 2
File, Temporary Record of Compliance, Jan 1, 1945 See reverse
File, Temporary Record of Compliance, Feb 1, 1945
File, Temporary Record of Compliance, May 1, 1945
In 1940-1941 Beech Aircraft designed an advanced,
multi-engine trainer that could be easily manufactured on a large scale.
To conserve scarce metals needed for combat aircraft, Beech built the
airframe out of plywood with only the engine cowlings and cockpit
enclosure constructed of aluminum. The fuel tanks also were made of wood
and covered with neoprene, a synthetic rubber. The extensive use of wood
permitted Beech to subcontract the production of many components to
furniture makers and other firms. The AT-10 had superior performance among
twin engine trainers of its type, and over half of the U.S. Army Air
Force's pilots received transitional training from single- to multi-engine
aircraft in them. The type was named "Wichita" after Wichita, Kansas, the
location of the Beechcraft factory.
Between 1941 and 1943, Beech built 1,771 AT-10s
and Globe Aircraft Corp. (which became Temco after World War II) built 600
in Dallas, Texas. The museum placed this AT-10 on display in June 1997.
Engine: Two Lycoming R-680-9 radials of 295 hp each, Maximum speed: 190
mph, Range: 660 miles, Ceiling: 20,000 ft., Span: 44 ft., Length: 34 ft. 4
in. Height: 10 ft. 4 in. , Weight: 6,465 lbs.
Brandenburg & Berlin written
at top. Take off time 0639. No date, possibly Aug 6, 1944, Cushing's sortie #9
to Brandenburg. A 10-hr mission he co-piloted with Heraty as
1st pilot, ship 053 (red dot). Pilot names & plane numbers
shown with formation position. Other pilots: (no name) 767, Barrett
969, Adams 133, Bailey 840, Carday 600, McKee 574, Collin 278,
Pederson 063, McAllister 726, Gassman 129, Burrell 042. See
Taxi instructions, Thurleigh, "06" written at
top may mean Aug. 6, the Brandenburg sortie. Airship #053.
date, take off time 0830, a sortie with Heraty as pilot and Cushing
as co-pilot of ship 053 (red dot.) Gen. Turner in lead plane
is likely Maj. Gen.
Howard M. Turner. Other pilots of other planes:
Hutzell 943, Weinel 796, McDevett 148, MacChosky 575, Tell Pff,
Mapes 969, Donkin 715, Allen 619, McStay 633, Christiansen 454,
date, take off time 1012, another sortie with Heraty as pilot and
Cushing as co-pilot of ship 053. Other pilots: Plecher 549, McKee
397, Sage 099, Mox 976, Brown 598, Wilkie 505, Alyea 055, Martin
065, Schoenbacher 503, Hutchinson 963, Burnett 616, Carazon 301.
date, take off time 0723, sortie with Heraty as pilot and Cushing as
co-pilot of ship 053. Other pilots: Soloda(?) 093, Deck(?)
690, Mapes 969, Dryor 633, Christiansen 619, Buffein 943, Nibloch
323, McAllister 578, Allen 946, McDevett 148, illegible 155.
Vultee BT-13 Valiant photo by Mark Neumann from 2015
Air Force Commemorative Calendar
During World War II, pilot
training was one of the most essential tasks conducted within the
continental United States. Many southern states, chosen for
their favorable weather, were host to hundreds of small airfields
where pilots learned to fly and then learned the techniques of air
combat. Pilot training had three phases, Primary, Basic and
The Vultee BT-13 was an
essential basic training platform flown by almost every pilot in the
U.S. Army Air Forces. A later version was known as the BT-15
Valiant. The student sat in the front seat, while the
instructor sat behind him. The aircraft was also used by the
Navy for the same purpose, but was identified as the SNV. More
than 11,537 were produced. Crew: Two (student pilot and
flight instructor), Length: 28 ft. 10 in., Wingspan: 42 ft, Empty
weight: 6,404 lbs., Height: 11 ft 6 in., Maximum weight: 4,365 lbs.,
Powerplant: One Pratt & Whitney R-985-AN-1 Wasp Jr 9-cylinder radial
engine, producing 450 hp. Maximum speed: 190 mph, Range: 725
mi., Service ceiling: 21,650 ft., Armament: None. (Information
from from 2015 Air Force Commemorative Calendar.)
The C-45 was the World War II military version of
the popular Beechcraft Model 18 commercial light transport. Beech built a
total of 4,526 of these aircraft for the Army Air Forces between 1939 and
1945 in four versions, the AT-7 Navigator navigation trainer, the AT-11
Kansan bombing-gunnery trainer, the C-45 Expeditor utility transport and
the F-2 for aerial photography and mapping. The AT-7 and AT-11 versions
were well-known to WWII navigators and bombardiers, for most of these men
received their training in these aircraft. Thousands of AAF pilot cadets
also were given advanced training in twin-engine Beech airplanes.
During the early 1950s, Beech completely rebuilt
900 C-45s for the Air Force. They received new serial numbers and were
designated C-45Gs and C-45Hs, remaining in service until 1963 for
administrative and light cargo duties.
SPECIFICATIONS: Span: 47 ft. 8 in. ,
Length: 34 ft. 2 in. , Height: 9 ft. 2 in. , Weight: 9,300 lbs. maximum ,
Armament: None , Engines: Two Pratt & Whitney R-985s of 450 hp each ,
PERFORMANCE: Maximum speed: 219 mph ,
Cruising speed: 150 mph, Range: 1,140 miles , Service ceiling: 18,200 ft.
Autry, known as the "Singing Cowboy", was stationed at
Romulus in 1945. After serving his tour of duty in
China, he returned to the U.S. to ferry and fly cargo.
He joined the Army Air Forces when he was refused
enlistment by other branches due to his age. Autry
held the rank of Flight Officer and was well-respected
by his peers. While in the service, he still did
his show on Armed Forces Radio and after returning to
the U.S. he did war-bond drives across the country.
Ferry operations were carried out by
Air Transport Command through Air Base Units and Ferrying
Groups. Crews picked up new airplanes usually nearest their
bases and flew them to modifications centers, ports of
embarkation, and combat units. The crews then hitched rides on
airplanes (SNAFU airlines) flying in the direction of the home
base or they took the train. Crews had priority on commercial
flights as well.
Route One: Heavy bombers capable of crossing the North
Atlantic by flight Boeing Field (Seattle, Wash.) to Wayne
County Airport (Romulus, Michigan) to Montreal, Quebec.
Detroit Sector, Wayne County Airport, Romulus, Michigan
Accepted deliveries from the Curtiss-Wright plants at Buffalo,
New York and Columbus, Ohio; the Ford Willow Run plant (near
Ypsilanti, Michigan) and the Bell factory at Buffalo.
Redesignated 3d Ferrying Group, 28 May 1942.
One of the primary functions of
Romulus AAF was the training of new pilots as well as the
training of experienced pilots on new aircraft flown out of
the base. Men and women trained together to learn the
specifics of aircraft that were to be transported across the
After the war, servicemen and women were
discharged from Romulus in Oct. of 1945, and in 1946, control
of the airport began to be turned over to Wayne County.
The map room at Romulus, where
the ATC kept track of its pilots.
Crude pilot training aids had been
designed even before World War I, but none had any significant
training value. Edwin A. Link provided a giant step forward
when in 1931 he received a patent on his "pilot maker"
training device. He had perfected his design in the basement
of his father's piano and organ factory in Binghamton, N.Y.
Organ bellows and a motor provided the means for the trainer,
mounted on a pedestal, to pitch, roll, dive and climb as the
student "flew" it. Ironically, most of his first sales were to
amusement parks. In 1934, after a series of tragic accidents
while flying the air mail, the Army Air Corps bought six Link
trainers to assist in training pilots to fly at night and in
bad weather relying only on instruments. The World War II era
brought orders for thousands of Link trainers from the United
States and many foreign countries. Although Army Air Forces
aviation cadets flew various trainer aircraft, virtually all
took blind-flying instruction in a Link.
Movement of the trainer is accomplished by
vacuum operated bellows, controlled by valves connected to the
control wheel (or stick) and rudder pedals. An instructor sat at the
desk and transmitted radio messages which the student in the Link
heard through his earphones. Inside the "cockpit," the student
relied on his instruments to "fly" the Link through various
maneuvers while his navigational "course" was traced on a map on the
desk by the three-wheeled "crab." Slip stream simulators gave the
controls the feeling of air passing over control surfaces and a
rough air generator added additional realism during the "flight."
The trainers were realistic enough that a humorous but unlikely
story circulated that one student, told by his instructor that he
had run out of fuel on a night flight, broke his ankle when he
leaped from the trainer as though parachuting to safety.
14. MacDill AAF,
Fla. Mar 25 - Mar 28, 1944
Langley AAF, Va. Mar 28 - May 10,
Langley AAF, Va. May 10 - May 28, 1944
Bangor, Me., May 28 - May 29, 1944
Newfoundland, CAN, May 29 - 31, 1944
Azores Islands, May 31 - Jun 2, 1944
Lands End, ENG, Jun 2 - Jun 6, 1944
Thurleigh, Beford ENG, Jun 7, 1944
16. Thurleigh, ENG, Jun
7 - Jun 16, 1944
to Munich, GER/Ham, FRA/Peenemunde,
GER,/Kothen, GER, Jun 16 - Jul 21, 1944
17. Thurleigh, ENG, Jul
23, 1944 to St.
Lo, FRA/Munich, GER/Anklam, GER/
GER, Jul 24 - Aug 15, 1944
Thurleigh, ENG, Aug 16, 1944 to Bohlen,
GER/Kiel, GER/Ludwigshaven, GER/
Vokel, HOL/Kassel, GER/Frankfort,GER
Aug 16 - Oct. 1, 1944
19. Thurleigh, ENG, Oct
2, 1944 to Kassel,
GER/Koln, GER, Oct 2 - Oct 17, 1944
20. Thurleigh, ENG, Oct
22, 1944 to Hanover,
GER/Harburg, GER/Frankfurt, GER/
GER, Oct 22 - Dec 6, 1944
Thurleigh, ENG, Dec 11 - Jan 6, 1945,
to Koln, GER/Euskirchen GER/Speyer,
GER, Jan 6 - Jan 8, 1945
Pilot and Co-pilot on a B-17
Co-Pilot in the cockpit of a B-17E at MacDill Field, March
1942 - LIFE magazine
During WWII, the pilot sat in the left seat and
was referred to as the first pilot. Occasionally, if he was good to
his co-pilot, he let him sit there to fly and make
landings, etc. in training to increase his capabilities. However,
landings, takeoffs and all flying operations could be done easily
from the right seat. Since most pilots were right handed, the
controls were located more or less for a right-hander. When the
Command Officer showed up to lead the formation, he always sat in
the co-pilot seat, and quite often then, the crew's co-pilot sat in
the tail gunners seat to tell the Command Pilot what was going on
out back. After the war the terminology gradually changed, and the
co-pilot became the First Officer and the guy in the left seat
became the Command Pilot or Command of the Aircraft. (From
FAQs about Army Air Force Terms in WWII, 398th Bomb Group
See photos from LIFE Magazine, March 1942, of a
feature about the crew of the B-17E Flying Fortress at TampaPix's
MacDill AFB 1976 Air Show and a history of MacDill Field.
1. Front Cover
3. Instructions for use
4. Jul 7 - Aug 24, 1951
25 - Oct 1, 1951
6. Oct 2 - Oct 18, 1951
7. Career flying time,
grouped by plane type.
Example on how to use log book, not
July 28, 1935 (prototype)
103 feet 9 inches
74 feet 9 inches
Four 1,200-horsepower Wright R-1820-97 engines
2 pilots, bombardier, radio-operator, 5 gunners
11 to 13 machine guns, 9,600-pound bomb load
The B-17 Flying Fortress
In response for the Army's request for a large, multi-engine bomber,
the B-17 (Model 299) prototype, financed entirely by Boeing, went
from design board to flight test in less than 12 months. The B-17
was a low-wing monoplane that combined aerodynamic features of the
XB-15 giant bomber, still in the design stage, and the Model 247
transport. The B-17 was the first Boeing military aircraft with a
flight deck instead of an open cockpit and was armed with bombs and
five .30-caliber machine guns mounted in clear "blisters."
Each new version was more heavily armed.
The engines were upgraded to more powerful versions several times,
and similarly, the gun stations were altered on numerous occasions
to enhance their effectiveness.
The first B-17s saw combat in 1941, when the
British Royal Air Force took delivery of several B-17s for
high-altitude missions. As World War II intensified, the bombers
needed additional armament and armor.
As the production line developed, Boeing
engineers continued to improve upon the basic design. To enhance
performance at slower speeds, the B-17B was altered to include
larger rudder and flaps. The B-17C changed from gun blisters to
flush, oval-shaped windows.
The B-17E version was the most significantly
changed version. It was the first mass-produced model Flying
Fortress, with the fuselage extended by 10 feet. It was the
first Boeing airplane with the distinctive -- and enormous -- tail
for improved control and stability during high-altitude bombing.
A gunner's position in the tail and an improved nose were added.
It was several tons heavier than the prototypes and bristled with
armament. It carried nine machine guns and a 4,000-pound bomb
By the time the definitive B-17 G appeared,
the number of guns had been increased from seven to 13, the designs
of the gun stations were finalized, and other adjustments were
complete. The B-17 G was the final version of the B-17,
incorporating all changes made to its predecessor, the B-17 F, and
in total 8,680 were built, the last one on 9 April 1945. Many
B-17 Gs were converted for other missions such as cargo hauling,
engine testing and reconnaissance. Initially designated
SB-17G, a number of B-17Gs were also converted for search-and-rescue
duties, later to be redesignated B-17H.
The Fortresses were also legendary for their
ability to stay in the air after taking brutal poundings. They
sometimes limped back to their bases with large chunks of the
fuselage shot off.
Boeing plants built a total of 6,981 B-17s
in various models, and another 5,745 were built under a nationwide
collaborative effort by Douglas and Lockheed (Vega). Only a few
B-17s survive today; most were scrapped at the end of the war. Some
of the last Flying Fortresses met their end as target drones in the
1960s -- destroyed by Boeing Bomarc missiles.
Qualification Records Wallet, Ferrying Division, Air Transport Command - Romulus, Mich.
May 8, 1945
Leather binding holds
pages with plastic screw posts. May 8, 1945
qualification as Instrument Pilot with total 800 hrs pilot time to
date. 1st Lt. Cushing, May 24, 1946
1st. Lt. Charles E. Cushing,
May 8, 1945
familiarity with B-17 and competence to ferry it. May 8, 1945
Over 579 hrs. pilot
time accumulated on B-17 bombers. May 8, 1945
familiarity with PT-23 and competence to ferry it. May 8, 1945
Over 65 hrs pilot time
accumulated on PT-23. May 8, 1945
familiarity with BT-13 & 15 (Vultee)and competence to ferry it.
May 8, 1945
Over 78 hrs pilot time
accumulated on PT-23. May 8, 1945
familiarity with AT-10 and competence to ferry it. May 8, 1945
Over 76 hrs pilot time
accumulated on AT-10. May 8, 1945
May 22, 1945 - 2 hrs 25
min pilot time on a B-25
Aug 28 to Sep 6, 1945 -
47 hrs 30 min on F-7B.
May 29 to Jul 22 -
nearly 65 hrs on B-24 (Liberator)
familiarity with C-47 night flight and competence to ferry it.
Total 7hrs 5 min qualified dual time. Aug 22, 1945
Aug 22, 1945 - 7 hrs 5
min C-47 pilot time.
May 21 & 22, 1945 - 3 hrs 25 min
Consolidated B-24 Liberator photo by Kevin Hong
from 2015 Commemorative Air Force calendar.
The most produced multi-engine
bomber in history, the Consolidated B-24 Liberator, was originally
developed when Consolidated was asked to produce B-17s under
license. Consolidated engineers estimated that they could make
an airplane that could fly farther, faster, and carry more bombs
than the B-17 by using some of the features which they had used on
their large flying boat designs. They were correct, and the
Liberator went on to serve in every theater of the war.
Between 1940 and 1945, 18,482 Liberators were built by Consolidated
and under license by Ford at their Willow Run plant.
Records and associated newspaper clippings
Flight Records June 1944 through January 1945
Pilot Log Book
Operational Sortie Record,
Pilot, 2nd Lt. Charles E. Cushing
Sun glasses, jacket,
trousers, Consignor: Port Supply Officer, Sta. #3 NAW ATC, Dow
Field, Bangor, Me. Consignee: 2nd Lt. Cushing, B-17 #7740, May
equipment & clothing, Consignor: Charles E. Cushing, 2nd Lt.
Ship to: 367th Bomb Sq. (H), 306th Bomb Gr. (H), APO 557 (Thurleigh
Jul 7, 1944
Flying clothing bag,
Flyer's kit bag, summer flying jacket, Consignor: 367th Bomb Sq.
(H), 306th Bomb Gr. (H), APO 557 (Thurleigh AF, ENG.) Ship to:
Charles E. Cushing, 1st Lt.,
Jan 21, 1945
Navigation watch and
set of navigation tables, Consignor: C. E. Cushing 1st. Lt., 306th
Bomb Grp (H), AAF 111, APO 557 (Thurleigh, ENG.), Consignee: Group
Navigator (Capt. J.D. MacPherson, HQ 306th Bomb Grp, AAF 111, APO
557, Jan 21, 1945
Soldier's Individual Pay Records
Pay Record booklet, Charles E. Cushing
Front cover, May 12, 1943
Pay Record booklet, page 1, May 12, 1943
Pay Record booklet, page 2 & 3, Identification info, Changes
affecting pay status, Casual data, May 12, 1943
Pay Record booklet, page 4 & 5, Deductions ledger (blank), May 12,
Pay Record booklet, Instructions Governing the Issuance and Use of
Soldier's Individual Pay Record, page 6, May 12, 1943
Pay Record booklet, Back cover,
May 12, 1943
Guide for Officers, Army Nurses and Warrant Officers on Change of
Station, Headquarters Avon Park Bombing Range, Office of the Finance
Officer, Avon Park, Fla. Dec. 1943
Stuttgart AAF Graduation Commencement Program
Stuttgart Army Air Field
The Commanding Officer
Stuttgart Army Air Field
Announces the Graduation of Class 43-K on Sunday, Dec. Fifth
Nineteen Hundred Forty-Three
A through Z
Adams through Cox
Cox through Gilbert
Gilroy through Keyser
Kiernan through Pease
Pederson through Spencer
Stack through Zwolinski
The North American B-25 Mitchell, a twin-engine
bomber that became standard equipment for the Allied Air Forces in World
War II, was perhaps the most versatile aircraft of the war. It became the
most heavily armed airplane in the world, was used for high- and low-level
bombing, strafing, photoreconnaissance, submarine patrol and even as a
fighter, and was distinguished as the aircraft that completed the historic
raid over Tokyo in 1942. It required 8,500 original drawings and 195,000
engineering man-hours to produce the first one, but nearly 10,000 were
produced from late 1939, when the contract was awarded to North American
Aviation, through 1945. Basically, it was a twin-tail, mid-wing land
monoplane powered by two 1,700-hp Wright Cyclone engines. Normal bomb
capacity was 5,000 pounds. Some versions carried 75 mm cannon, machine
guns and added firepower of 13 .50-caliber guns in the conventional
bombardier's compartment. One version carried eight .50-caliber guns in
the nose in an arrangement that provided 14 forward-firing guns.
Information from Boeing
Photo from Wikipedia
File Size 1.9 Mb -
Click to view or download PDF from DropBox
Avon Park Orientation, Rules &
Regulations, Dec. 1943
On Dec. 5, 1943, 2nd Lt. Cushing was transferred
from Stuttgart to
the 3rd AF, 88th Bomb Group at Avon Park Army Air Field, Fla.
None of Charles' Pilot Logs or Individual Flight Records show flight time
at Avon Park. Further evidence that he didn't have any flight time
there was that his total to-date hours at Stuttgart are carried over to
his initial to-date hours at MacDill. His assignment at Avon Park
terminated on Jan. 4, 1944, at which time he was transferred to MacDill
Air Field in Tampa.
This document doesn't refer anywhere
to Avon Park, but a section on rules for swimming in Lake Arbuckle
confirms this as an Avon Park document.
Established in early 1942 as a B-17
Flying Fortress heavy bombardment group, Avon Park was assigned to II
Bomber Command as a heavy bomber Operational Training Unit (OTU)for
air-to-ground bombing and antisubmarine patrol. The group was
assigned primarily to airfields in the Pacific Northwest under II BC;
performing training of new units, then becoming a Replacement Training
Unit (RTU). Reassigned to III Bomber Command in November 1943 when Second
Air Force began to exclusively train B-29 Superfortress aircrews. It
continued as a B-17 RTU until the end of heavy bomber training of
replacement aircrews in May 1944 when it was inactivated.
Certificate of completion
of primary flight training, Cape Institute of Aeronautics, Harris Field,
Cape Girardeau, Mo.,
Jul 29, 1943
Certificate of termination
of assignment to public quarters, Avon Park AAF, effective Jan 4,
1944, Rank: 2nd Lt.
Certificate of termination
of officers' assignment to quarters, MacDill AAF, effective Apr 7, 1944,
Rank 2nd Lt.
Familiarization with B-17 Aircraft, Transition Flight Section, 553rd AAF,
3rd Ferrying Group, Air Transport Command (ATC), Romulus AAF, Mich.,
Rank: 1st Lt., May 8, 1945
Familiarization with PT-23, BT-13 , BT-15, (Vultee) & AT-10 Aircraft, Transition
Flight Section, 553rd AAF, 3rd Ferrying Group, Air Transport Command (ATC),
Romulus AAF, Mich., Rank: 1st Lt., May 8, 1945
Checklist for Last Will &
Testament and Power of Attorney
HBC 488th Bomb Group (H)
MacDill Field, Tampa
Rank: 2nd Lt.,
Jan 25, 1944
Check sheet for various
items required to be carried on person, including forms, cards, tags,
spectacles. Rank, 2nd Lt. No date, no location.
Clearance sheet for
officers, AAF Station 111, APO 557 (Thurleigh, ENG.) certifying all
accounts settled and all property returned and transfer to 70th RD on
Jan 22, 1945. Rank: 1st Lt. Dated Jan 20, 1945.
Corrected Extract p.1,
Stuttgart AAF Advanced Training, Arkansas. Orders to transfer to
3rd AF 88 Bomb Group, Avon Park, Fla. Rank: 2nd Lt. Dec 5, 1943 See page 2
Extract p.1, Personnel
orders, Maxwell Field, Ala.
2nd Lieutenants completed prescribed course, now certified as pilots
effective Dec 5, 1943, dated Nov 27, 1943. See page 2See page 3
Individual Issue Record for
Equipment, Clothes, Kit, Parachute, etc. Mar 1944, Rank: 2nd Lt., May 27 & 28, 1944.
Instructor's Check Sheet
for Bombing Pilot, Co-Pilot, Bombardier and Navigator. Rank: 2nd
Lt. Feb 5, 1944. See page 2.
Inventory Certificate, APO
652 (Stone, England), Jan 25, 1945.
Inventory of numerous articles of clothing and accessories.
List - Minimum required
clothing and equipment, 3rd AF, 488th Bombardment Group (H), MacDill
Field, Tampa, Fla. Items to be issued (Quartermaster equipment)
or purchased by all officers, medical, signal corps and Army Air Corps
equipment. Rank: 2nd Lt., Mar 8, 1944
Map, MacDill Field
Tampa, FL - Jan 1944
Certificate Application and Flight Check Form, C-45 aircraft, Rank: 1st
Lt., May 24, 1945
Schedule - Avon Park AAF
Bus Schedule. Not dated, but Charles was stationed at Avon Park in
Soldier Information Sheet
Rank: 2nd Lt. 488th bomb group (MacDill Field)
Jan 1, 1944.
Statement of Service
FM & A/C Aug 13, 1942 - Dec 4, 1943, 2nd Lt. Dec 5, 1943 to date.
Click to enlarge
"The German soldier who carries this safe conduct is using it as a sign of
his genuine wish to give himself up. He is to be disarmed, to be well looked
after, to receive food and medical attention as required and to be removed
from the danger zone as soon as possible."
Allied "Passierschien" World War II Safe Conduct
Pass ZG61 By SGM Herbert A.
The story of the "passierschein" ("safe conduct pass") for Germany is
interesting because of the alleged belief on the part of the Allies that the
German officer or soldier would react in a positive way to an official
looking document. Therefore, the Americans and British collaborated to
produce a fancy official document bearing national seals and signatures that
would rival a stock certificate. They produced the leaflets late in the war
in various formats with different code numbers.
M.A. Linebarger mentions the theory in Psychological Warfare, Infantry
Journal Press, Washington D.C., 1948. He says:
Germans liked things done in an official and formal manner, even in the
midst of chaos, catastrophe and defeat. The Allied obliged, and gave the
Germans various forms of very official looking ‘surrender passes.’ One is
printed in red and has banknote-type engraving which makes it resemble a
Before the United States entered World War II in
December 1941, several different styles of surrender leaflets had been
printed and dropped by the British, French and Russians on the German
Army, with no overall supervision or uniformity. The leaflets were of
various colors, sizes, fonts, and differing surrender instructions.
When American troops arrived in the United Kingdom, things changed.
The U.S. and U.K. worked together for the first time to prepare a
standardized safe conduct leaflet. The final version of the "passierschein"
has been referred to as the most effective single leaflet of the war, so
much so that the Allied Supreme Headquarters issued a directive in 1944
forbidding reproduction of the safe conduct pass on other leaflets, wanting
to protect the authenticity of the document.
ZG61 was dropped from September 1944 to March 1945. The Allies printed
67,345,800 and dropped 65,750,000. This leaflet bears the name and signature
of General Eisenhower. It was printed in both red and green.
The text on the back: "Basic Principles
of International Law regarding Prisoner of War."
(According to the
Hague Convention, 1907, and the Geneva Convention, 1929)
1. From the moment of surrender,
German soldiers are regarded as P.O.W.s and come under the
protection of the Geneva Convention. Accordingly, their military
honor is fully respected.
2. P.O.W.s must be taken to assembly
points as soon as possible, which are far enough from the danger
zone to safeguard their personal security.
3. P.O.W.s receive the same rations,
qualitatively and quantitatively, as members of the Allied armies,
and, if sick or wounded, are treated in the same hospitals as
4. Decorations and valuables are to
be left with the P.O.W.s. Money may be taken only be officers of
the assembly points and receipts must be given.
Click to enlarge
5. Sleeping quarters, accommodation,
bunks and other installations in P.O.W. camps must be equal to
those of Allied garrison troops.
6. According to the Geneva
Convention, P.O.W.s must not become subject of reprisals nor be
exposed to public curiosity. After the end of the war they must be
sent home as soon as possible.
Soldiers in the meaning of the Hague
Convention (IV, 1907) are: All armed persons, who wear uniforms or
any insignias which can be recognized from a distance.
RULES FOR SURRENDER
To prevent misunderstanding when
surrendering, the following procedure is advisable: Lay down arms,
take off helmet and belt, raise your hands and wave a handkerchief
or this leaflet.
Learn more about
the Safe Conduct Pass and see more versions at the source for the
The Allied Passierschien, by SGM Herbert A. Friedman (Ret.)
Basic vital statistics, address, names parents, siblings.
Jan 6, 1944