Charles E. Cushing was certified to fly all the planes featured on this page.

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A chronological list of these documents, with links to the images, along with other the items, is currently being created.
 


Authorizations
 
Authorization for Allotment of Pay
Stuttgart AAF, Ark.  $6.50 per month to be deducted from pay to go to the Veterans Administration, Dec 5, 1943
Authorization for Allotment of Pay
MacDill Field, Tampa Fla.,  2nd Lt., $10.00 per month to be deducted from pay to go to the mother Eliz. Cushing or sister Frances R. Cushing,  Mar 21, 1944
Authorization of Class B Allotment for Purchase of War Savings Bonds, $50, 2nd Lt. Staging Sec. 111th AAF bomb unit, Langley Field, Va.  Mar-May 1944
     
 

Checklists & Info for Officers Returning to the U.S.
 

Checklist for officers returning to the U.S., Jan 24, 1945 Information for Returnee to Zone of Interior, Headquarters, 70th Replacement Depot, APO 652, AAF Station 594 (Stone, Staffordshire, ENG. Feb 3, 1945)
See page 2
Statement of compliance to regulations regarding possession of prohibited items for officers returning to the U.S., 70th Replacement Depot, APO 652, AAF Station 594, (Stone, Staffordshire, ENG.) Feb 3, 1945
See reverse side
     
     

Compliance Records
 

Table of Contents, page 1, Pilot's Information File,
Probably Jan 1945
See page 2
Pilot's Information File, Temporary Record of Compliance, Jan 1, 1945
See reverse side
Pilot's Information File, Temporary Record of Compliance, Feb 1, 1945 Pilot's Information File, Temporary Record of Compliance, May 1, 1945
       
       



 


Wichita Beechcraft AT-10 Photo from Wikipedia
 

In 1940-1941 Beech Aircraft designed an advanced, multi-engine trainer that could be easily manufactured on a large scale. To conserve scarce metals needed for combat aircraft, Beech built the airframe out of plywood with only the engine cowlings and cockpit enclosure constructed of aluminum. The fuel tanks also were made of wood and covered with neoprene, a synthetic rubber. The extensive use of wood permitted Beech to subcontract the production of many components to furniture makers and other firms. The AT-10 had superior performance among twin engine trainers of its type, and over half of the U.S. Army Air Force's pilots received transitional training from single- to multi-engine aircraft in them. The type was named "Wichita" after Wichita, Kansas, the location of the Beechcraft factory.

Between 1941 and 1943, Beech built 1,771 AT-10s and Globe Aircraft Corp. (which became Temco after World War II) built 600 in Dallas, Texas. The museum placed this AT-10 on display in June 1997.

TECHNICAL NOTES:
Engine: Two Lycoming R-680-9 radials of 295 hp each, Maximum speed: 190 mph, Range: 660 miles, Ceiling: 20,000 ft., Span: 44 ft., Length: 34 ft. 4 in.  Height: 10 ft. 4 in. , Weight: 6,465 lbs.

Information from National Museum of the U.S. Air Force

 


Flight Records & Pilot Logs
 
  Formation Data
 

Brandenburg & Berlin written at top.  Take off time 0639.   No date, possibly Aug 6, 1944, Cushing's sortie #9 to Brandenburg.  A 10-hr mission he co-piloted with Heraty as 1st pilot, ship 053 (red dot).  Pilot names & plane numbers shown with formation position. Other pilots: (no name) 767, Barrett 969, Adams 133, Bailey 840, Carday 600, McKee 574, Collin 278, Pederson 063, McAllister 726, Gassman 129, Burrell 042.  See Taxi instructions, Thurleigh, "06" written at top may mean Aug. 6, the Brandenburg sortie.  Airship #053.
   

No date, take off time 0830, a sortie with Heraty as pilot and Cushing as co-pilot of ship 053 (red dot.)  Gen. Turner in lead plane is likely Maj. Gen. Howard M. Turner.  Other pilots of other planes:  Hutzell 943, Weinel 796, McDevett 148, MacChosky 575, Tell Pff, Mapes 969, Donkin 715, Allen 619, McStay 633, Christiansen 454, Dodge 912.
         

No date, take off time 1012, another sortie with Heraty as pilot and Cushing as co-pilot of ship 053. Other pilots: Plecher 549, McKee 397, Sage 099, Mox 976, Brown 598, Wilkie 505, Alyea 055, Martin 065, Schoenbacher 503, Hutchinson 963, Burnett 616, Carazon 301.
         

No date, take off time 0723, sortie with Heraty as pilot and Cushing as co-pilot of ship 053.  Other pilots: Soloda(?) 093, Deck(?) 690, Mapes 969, Dryor 633, Christiansen 619, Buffein 943, Nibloch 323, McAllister 578, Allen 946, McDevett 148, illegible 155.
         

Hdqtrs. 367th bombardment squadron (H), APO 557.  According to Thurleigh Taxi instructions, Ship No. 515 was the plane Cushing piloted.  Take off time 0900, target time 1337.  No date, but Cushing was pilot on 6 sorties, #30 through #35 on: Jan 6, 7, 8, 10, 14, and 15, 1945 according to his Individual Pilot Record.
         
 


Vultee BT-13 Valiant photo by Mark Neumann from 2015 Air Force Commemorative Calendar

During World War II, pilot training was one of the most essential tasks conducted within the continental United States.  Many southern states, chosen for their favorable weather, were host to hundreds of small airfields where pilots learned to fly and then learned the techniques of air combat.  Pilot training had three phases, Primary, Basic and Advanced. 
The Vultee BT-13 was an essential basic training platform flown by almost every pilot in the U.S. Army Air Forces.  A later version was known as the BT-15 Valiant.  The student sat in the front seat, while the instructor sat behind him.  The aircraft was also used by the Navy for the same purpose, but was identified as the SNV.  More than 11,537 were produced.  Crew:  Two (student pilot and flight instructor), Length: 28 ft. 10 in., Wingspan: 42 ft, Empty weight: 6,404 lbs., Height: 11 ft 6 in., Maximum weight: 4,365 lbs., Powerplant: One Pratt & Whitney R-985-AN-1 Wasp Jr 9-cylinder radial engine, producing 450 hp.  Maximum speed: 190 mph, Range: 725 mi., Service ceiling: 21,650 ft., Armament: None.  (Information from from 2015 Air Force Commemorative Calendar.)

 

Photo from Wikipedia

 

 

  Individual Flight Records
         

Jul 1943
Harris Field, Mo.
Plane:  PT-103
Aviation Cadet - Primary Training, 65 hrs, 4 min total

Aug & Sep 1943
Malden AAF, Mo.
Student Pilot - Basic Training, pilot time 78 hrs, 35 min.
Oct & Nov 1943
Stuttgart, Ark.
Student Pilot - Advanced Training, pilot time 76 hrs, 25 min.
Jan 1944
MacDill Field, Tampa, Fla. 3rd AF III Bomb Command, Group 488 , Pilot, 2nd Lt., Plane: B-17 F, total pilot time 42 hrs, 50 min.
Feb 1944
MacDill Field, Tampa, Fla. 3rd AF III Bomb Command,  Group 488, Squadron 843, Pilot, 2nd Lt., Plane B-17F, pilot time 60 hrs 40 min.
         

Mar 1944
MacDill Field, Tampa, Fla. 3rd AF III Bomb Command,  Group 488 H, Squadron 843, Pilot, 2nd Lt., Plane B-17F, pilot time 37 hrs 35 min., Transferred to III AF Staging Wing, Savannah, Ga.

Apr 1944
Langley Field, Va. 1st AF, I Bomb Command, Group 111,  Squadron AAFBU, Pilot, 2nd Lt., Plane B-17G, pilot time 6 hrs 25 min.
May 1944
Langley Field, Va., 1st AF, I Bomb Command, Group 111th, Squadron AAFBU, Pilot, 2nd Lt., Plane B-17G, pilot time 30 hrs, 15 min.
 
May 1944 Supplemental
Langley Field, Va., 8th AF, 1st Div, 40 CBW Wing, 306th Bomb Group, 367th Squadron, Pilot, 2nd Lt., Plane B-17, pilot time 17 hrs, 40 min. , Transferred to AAF 111, APO 557 (Thurleigh, ENG)
June 1944
AAF 111, APO 557 (Thurleigh Field, ENG),  8th AF, 1st Div. Command, 40 CBW Wing, 306th Group, 367 Squadron, Pilot, 2nd Lt., Plane B-17, Co-Pilot time 13 hrs 15 min.
         

Jul 1944
AAF 111, APO 557 (Thurleigh Field, ENG),  8th AF, 1st Div. Command, 40 CBW Wing, 306th Group, 367 Squadron, Pilot, 2nd Lt., Plane B-17, Co-pilot time 74 hrs, 25 min.

Aug 1944
AAF 111, APO 557 (Thurleigh Field, ENG),  8th AF, 1st Div. Command, 40 CBW Wing, 306th Group, 367 Squadron, Pilot, 2nd Lt., Plane B-17G, Co-Pilot time 55 hrs, 1st Pilot 2 hrs.
Sep 1944
AAF 111, APO 557 (Thurleigh Field, ENG),  8th AF, 1st Div. Command, 40 CBW Wing, 306th Group, 367 Squadron, Pilot, 2nd Lt., Plane B-17G, Co-Pilot time 49 hrs, 10 min.
Oct 1944
AAF 111, APO 557 (Thurleigh Field, ENG),  8th AF, 1st Div. Command, 40 CBW Wing, 306th Group, 367 Squadron, Pilot, 2nd Lt., Plane B-17G, Co-Pilot time 66 hrs 35 min.
Nov  1944
AAF 111, APO 557 (Thurleigh Field, ENG),  8th AF, 1st Div. Command, 40 CBW Wing, 306th Group, 367 Squadron, Pilot, 2nd Lt., Plane B-17G, 1st Pilot time 30 min, Co-Pilot time 40 hrs, 20 min.
         

Dec  1944
AAF 111, APO 557 (Thurleigh Field, ENG),  8th AF, 1st Div. Command, 40 CBW Wing, 306th Group, 367 Squadron, Pilot, 2nd Lt., Plane B-17G, Co-Pilot time 20 hrs, 15 min.
Jan  1945
AAF 111, APO 557 (Thurleigh Field, ENG),  8th AF, 1st Div. Command, 40 CBW Wing, 306th Group, 367 Squadron, Pilot,
1st Lt., Plane B-17G, 1st Pilot time 43 hrs, 55 min.
Feb & Mar  1945
AAFRS#2 Miami Beach
No time these months
Transferred Mar 15, 1945 to AAFEFTC Hendricks Field, Sebring, Fla.
Mar  1945
AAFEFTC 76th,  Hendricks Field, Sebring, Fla.
AAFPS Squadron T,
2137th AAF Base Unit,
Planes TB-17F, TB-17G
Qualified Pilot Dual Time 15 hrs, 45 min.
Apr  1945
AAFEFTC 76th,  Hendricks Field, Sebring, Fla., AAFPS, Planes TB-17F, Qualified Pilot Dual Time 3 hrs.  Transferred to Romulus, Mich. Apr 30, 1945.
 

"Closed: Transfer of station"

     
         

May 1945
Romulus AAF, Mich. ATC (Air Transport Command) 553rd  BU, 3rd Ferry Grp, 1st Lt., Plane C-45, Co-Pilot time 2 hrs 15 min.

May 1945 Supplemental
Romulus AAF, Mich. ATC (Air Transport Command) 553rd BU, 3rd Ferry Grp, 1st Lt., Plane TB-25J, Qualified Pilot Dual time 2 hrs 20 min.
Jun 1945
Romulus AAF, Mich. ATC (Air Transport Command) 553rd BU, 3rd Ferry Grp, 1st Lt.,  No flight time this month.
Jun1945 Supplemental
Romulus AAF, Mich. ATC (Air Transport Command) 553rd BU, 3rd Ferry Grp, 1st Lt.,  Plane B-24, Co-Pilot time May and Jun 46 hrs 49 min.
Jul 1945
Romulus AAF, Mich. ATC (Air Transport Command) 553rd BU, 3rd Ferry Grp, 1st Lt.,  Plane B-24, Co-Pilot time 18 hrs 20 min.
         

Career totals to date
  Student       220:05
  1st Pilot          57:50
  Total Pilot   930:10

Aug 1945
Romulus AAF, Mich. ATC (Air Transport Command) 553rd BU, 3rd Ferry Grp, 1st Lt.,  Plane C-47, Co-Pilot time 3 hrs 50 min, Qual. Pilot Dual 7 hrs 5 min.

Aug 1945 Supplemental
Romulus AAF, Mich. ATC (Air Transport Command) 553rd BU, 3rd Ferry Grp, 1st Lt.,  Plane F-7B, Co-Pilot time 7 hrs 15 min.

Sep 1945
Romulus AAF, Mich. ATC (Air Transport Command) 553rd BU, 3rd Ferry Grp, 1st Lt.,  Plane F-7B, Co-Pilot time 40 hrs 15 min.
Transfer to St. Joseph, Mo. Sep 18.

Oct 1945
Romulus AAF, Mich. ATC (Air Transport Command) 553rd BU, 3rd Ferry Grp, 1st Lt.  No time this month, transferred to PCS Separation Center.

 
 


Beechcraft C-45 Expiditer photo and information from National Museum of the U.S. Air Force

The C-45 was the World War II military version of the popular Beechcraft Model 18 commercial light transport. Beech built a total of 4,526 of these aircraft for the Army Air Forces between 1939 and 1945 in four versions, the AT-7 Navigator navigation trainer, the AT-11 Kansan bombing-gunnery trainer, the C-45 Expeditor utility transport and the F-2 for aerial photography and mapping. The AT-7 and AT-11 versions were well-known to WWII navigators and bombardiers, for most of these men received their training in these aircraft. Thousands of AAF pilot cadets also were given advanced training in twin-engine Beech airplanes.

During the early 1950s, Beech completely rebuilt 900 C-45s for the Air Force. They received new serial numbers and were designated C-45Gs and C-45Hs, remaining in service until 1963 for administrative and light cargo duties.

SPECIFICATIONS: Span: 47 ft. 8 in. , Length: 34 ft. 2 in. , Height: 9 ft. 2 in. , Weight: 9,300 lbs. maximum , Armament: None , Engines: Two Pratt & Whitney R-985s of 450 hp each , Cost: $57,838

PERFORMANCE: Maximum speed: 219 mph , Cruising speed: 150 mph, Range: 1,140 miles , Service ceiling: 18,200 ft.

 

 

Gene Autry, known as the "Singing Cowboy", was stationed at Romulus in 1945. After serving his tour of duty in China, he returned to the U.S. to ferry and fly cargo.  He joined the Army Air Forces when he was refused enlistment by other branches due to his age.  Autry held the rank of Flight Officer and was well-respected by his peers.  While in the service, he still did his show on Armed Forces Radio and after returning to the U.S. he did war-bond drives across the country.

ATC
Ferry operations were carried out by the Air Transport Command through Air Base Units and Ferrying Groups. Crews picked up new airplanes usually nearest their bases and flew them to modifications centers, ports of embarkation, and combat units. The crews then hitched rides on airplanes (SNAFU airlines) flying in the direction of the home base or they took the train. Crews had priority on commercial flights as well. 
(Info from ForumArmyAirForces.com)

Route One: Heavy bombers capable of crossing the North Atlantic by flight Boeing Field (Seattle, Wash.) to Wayne County Airport (Romulus, Michigan) to Montreal, Quebec.  Detroit Sector, Wayne County Airport, Romulus, Michigan Accepted deliveries from the Curtiss-Wright plants at Buffalo, New York and Columbus, Ohio; the Ford Willow Run plant (near Ypsilanti, Michigan) and the Bell factory at Buffalo. Redesignated 3d Ferrying Group, 28 May 1942.

One of the primary functions of Romulus AAF was the training of new pilots as well as the training of experienced pilots on new aircraft flown out of the base.  Men and women trained together to learn the specifics of aircraft that were to be transported across the U.S. 

 

After the war, servicemen and women were discharged from Romulus in Oct. of 1945, and in 1946, control of the airport began to be turned over to Wayne County.

The map room at Romulus, where the ATC kept track of its pilots.


 

Read much more about Romulus AAF and see several photos at Detroit Metro Airport by Daniel Mason, where the above two paragraphs and photos and caption at right are from.

 

 

The Link Trainer

Crude pilot training aids had been designed even before World War I, but none had any significant training value. Edwin A. Link provided a giant step forward when in 1931 he received a patent on his "pilot maker" training device. He had perfected his design in the basement of his father's piano and organ factory in Binghamton, N.Y. Organ bellows and a motor provided the means for the trainer, mounted on a pedestal, to pitch, roll, dive and climb as the student "flew" it. Ironically, most of his first sales were to amusement parks. In 1934, after a series of tragic accidents while flying the air mail, the Army Air Corps bought six Link trainers to assist in training pilots to fly at night and in bad weather relying only on instruments. The World War II era brought orders for thousands of Link trainers from the United States and many foreign countries. Although Army Air Forces aviation cadets flew various trainer aircraft, virtually all took blind-flying instruction in a Link.

   
 

See more photos of the Link Trainer at Flight Simulators of Yesteryear
 

Movement of the trainer is accomplished by vacuum operated bellows, controlled by valves connected to the control wheel (or stick) and rudder pedals. An instructor sat at the desk and transmitted radio messages which the student in the Link heard through his earphones. Inside the "cockpit," the student relied on his instruments to "fly" the Link through various maneuvers while his navigational "course" was traced on a map on the desk by the three-wheeled "crab." Slip stream simulators gave the controls the feeling of air passing over control surfaces and a rough air generator added additional realism during the "flight." The trainers were realistic enough that a humorous but unlikely story circulated that one student, told by his instructor that he had run out of fuel on a night flight, broke his ankle when he leaped from the trainer as though parachuting to safety.

National Museum of the U.S. Air Force - Fact Sheet: Link Trainer
 

 
Pilot Logbook 1

     

      

  1. Front Cover

  2.  Title Page

3. Malden AAF, Mo.  Aug 1 - Aug 15, 1943

     

4. Malden AAF, Mo. - Aug 16 - Aug 27, 1943

5. Malden AAF, Mo.  Aug 29 - Sep 9, 1943

6. Malden AAF, Mo.  Sep 13 - Sep 23, 1943

     

7. Malden AAF, Mo.  Sep 24 - Sep 27, 1943 8. Stuttgart AAF, Ark.  Oct 12 - Oct 27, 1943 9. Stuttgart AAF, Ark.  Oct 28 - Nov 14, 1943
     

10. Stuttgart AAF, Ark.  Nov 15 - Dec 1, 1943 11. MacDill AAF, Fla. Jan 12 - Jan 27, 1944 12. MacDill AAF, Fla. Jan 31 - Feb 13, 1944
     

13. MacDill AAF, Fla., Feb 16 - Mar 16, 1944 14.  MacDill AAF, Fla. Mar 25 - Mar 28, 1944
       Langley AAF, Va.  Mar 28 - May 10, 1944
15. Langley AAF, Va. May 10 - May 28, 1944
      Bangor, Me., May 28 - May 29, 1944
      Newfoundland, CAN, May 29 - 31, 1944
      Azores Islands, May 31 - Jun 2, 1944
      Lands End, ENG, Jun 2 - Jun 6, 1944
      Thurleigh, Beford ENG, Jun 7, 1944  
     

16. Thurleigh, ENG, Jun 7 - Jun 16, 1944
      to Munich, GER/Ham, FRA/Peenemunde,
      GER,/Kothen, GER, Jun 16 - Jul 21, 1944
17. Thurleigh, ENG, Jul 23, 1944 to St.
      Lo, FRA/Munich, GER/Anklam, GER/
      Brandenburg,GER/Rouen,FRA/Frankfort,
      GER, Jul 24 - Aug 15, 1944
18. Thurleigh, ENG, Aug 16, 1944 to Bohlen,
      GER/Kiel, GER/Ludwigshaven, GER/
      Vokel, HOL/Kassel, GER/Frankfort,GER
      Aug 16 - Oct. 1, 1944
     

19. Thurleigh, ENG, Oct 2, 1944 to Kassel,
      GER/Ruhland, GER/Schweinfurt,
      GER/Koln, GER, Oct 2 - Oct 17, 1944
20. Thurleigh, ENG, Oct 22, 1944 to Hanover,
      GER/Harburg, GER/Frankfurt, GER/
      Eschweiler, GER/Ohrdruff,GER/Merseburg
      GER, Oct 22 - Dec 6, 1944
21.  Thurleigh, ENG, Dec 11 - Jan 6, 1945,
        to Koln, GER/Euskirchen GER/Speyer,
        GER, Jan 6 - Jan 8, 1945

Pilot and Co-pilot on a B-17

Pilot and Co-Pilot in the cockpit of a B-17E at MacDill Field, March 1942 - LIFE magazine

During WWII, the pilot sat in the left seat and was referred to as the first pilot. Occasionally, if he was good to his co-pilot, he let him sit there to fly and make landings, etc. in training to increase his capabilities. However, landings, takeoffs and all flying operations could be done easily from the right seat. Since most pilots were right handed, the controls were located more or less for a right-hander. When the Command Officer showed up to lead the formation, he always sat in the co-pilot seat, and quite often then, the crew's co-pilot sat in the tail gunners seat to tell the Command Pilot what was going on out back. After the war the terminology gradually changed, and the co-pilot became the First Officer and the guy in the left seat became the Command Pilot or Command of the Aircraft.  (From FAQs about Army Air Force Terms in WWII, 398th Bomb Group Memorial Association.)

 

See photos from LIFE Magazine, March 1942, of a feature about the crew of the B-17E Flying Fortress at TampaPix's feature MacDill AFB 1976 Air Show and a history of MacDill Field.
 

Pilot Logbook 2

 
                    
1. Front Cover 2.  Identification page 3. Instructions for use
     
4. Jul 7 - Aug 24, 1951 5. Aug 25 - Oct 1, 1951 6. Oct 2 - Oct 18, 1951
     
 
7. Career flying time, grouped by plane type. 8. Example on how to use log book, not
    Charles' record.
 
     
 

B-17G Specifications
First flight: July 28, 1935 (prototype)
Model number: 299
Classification: Bomber
Span: 103 feet 9 inches
Length: 74 feet 9 inches
Gross weight: 65,000 pounds
Top speed: 287 mph
Cruising speed: 150 mph
Range (max.): 3,750 miles
Ceiling: 35,600 feet
Power: Four 1,200-horsepower Wright R-1820-97 engines
Accommodation: 2 pilots, bombardier, radio-operator, 5 gunners
Armament: 11 to 13 machine guns, 9,600-pound bomb load


The B-17 Flying Fortress

In response for the Army's request for a large, multi-engine bomber, the B-17 (Model 299) prototype, financed entirely by Boeing, went from design board to flight test in less than 12 months. The B-17 was a low-wing monoplane that combined aerodynamic features of the XB-15 giant bomber, still in the design stage, and the Model 247 transport. The B-17 was the first Boeing military aircraft with a flight deck instead of an open cockpit and was armed with bombs and five .30-caliber machine guns mounted in clear "blisters."

Each new version was more heavily armed.  The engines were upgraded to more powerful versions several times, and similarly, the gun stations were altered on numerous occasions to enhance their effectiveness.

The first B-17s saw combat in 1941, when the British Royal Air Force took delivery of several B-17s for high-altitude missions. As World War II intensified, the bombers needed additional armament and armor.

As the production line developed, Boeing engineers continued to improve upon the basic design. To enhance performance at slower speeds, the B-17B was altered to include larger rudder and flaps. The B-17C changed from gun blisters to flush, oval-shaped windows. 

The B-17E version was the most significantly changed version.  It was the first mass-produced model Flying Fortress, with the fuselage extended by 10 feet.  It was the first Boeing airplane with the distinctive -- and enormous -- tail for improved control and stability during high-altitude bombing.  A gunner's position in the tail and an improved nose were added.  It was several tons heavier than the prototypes and bristled with armament.  It carried nine machine guns and a 4,000-pound bomb load.


B-17 G Flying Fortress courtesy of Battle-Fleet.com

By the time the definitive B-17 G appeared, the number of guns had been increased from seven to 13, the designs of the gun stations were finalized, and other adjustments were complete. The B-17 G was the final version of the B-17, incorporating all changes made to its predecessor, the B-17 F, and in total 8,680 were built, the last one on 9 April 1945.  Many B-17 Gs were converted for other missions such as cargo hauling, engine testing and reconnaissance.  Initially designated SB-17G, a number of B-17Gs were also converted for search-and-rescue duties, later to be redesignated B-17H.

The Fortresses were also legendary for their ability to stay in the air after taking brutal poundings. They sometimes limped back to their bases with large chunks of the fuselage shot off.

Boeing plants built a total of 6,981 B-17s in various models, and another 5,745 were built under a nationwide collaborative effort by Douglas and Lockheed (Vega). Only a few B-17s survive today; most were scrapped at the end of the war. Some of the last Flying Fortresses met their end as target drones in the 1960s -- destroyed by Boeing Bomarc missiles. 

(From Boeing.com and Batttle-Fleet.com


B-17G Flying Fortress photo by Kevin Hong from 2015 Commemorative Air Force Calendar

See this TampaPix feature, B-17 Flying Fortress Crashes in West Tampa,, May 19, 1944

 


Qualification Records Wallet, Ferrying Division, Air Transport Command - Romulus, Mich.
         
Front Cover
May 8, 1945
Leather binding holds pages with plastic screw posts. May 8, 1945 Certificate of qualification as Instrument Pilot with total 800 hrs pilot time to date.  1st Lt. Cushing, May 24, 1946 Identification page, 1st. Lt. Charles E. Cushing,
May 8, 1945
Certification of familiarity with B-17 and competence to ferry it.  May 8, 1945
         
Over 579 hrs. pilot time accumulated on B-17 bombers.  May 8, 1945 Certification of familiarity with PT-23 and competence to ferry it.  May 8, 1945 Over 65 hrs pilot time accumulated on PT-23.  May 8, 1945 Certification of familiarity with BT-13 & 15 (Vultee)and competence to ferry it. May 8, 1945 Over 78 hrs pilot time accumulated on PT-23.  May 8, 1945
         
Certification of familiarity with AT-10 and competence to ferry it. May 8, 1945 Over 76 hrs pilot time accumulated on AT-10. May 8, 1945 May 22, 1945 - 2 hrs 25 min pilot time on a B-25
(Mitchell)
Aug 28 to Sep 6, 1945 - 47 hrs 30 min on F-7B. May 29 to Jul 22 - nearly 65 hrs on B-24 (Liberator)
         
   
 Certification of familiarity with C-47 night flight and competence to ferry it.  Total 7hrs 5 min qualified dual time.  Aug 22, 1945 Aug 22, 1945 - 7 hrs 5 min C-47 pilot time. May 21 & 22, 1945 - 3 hrs 25 min Link trainer.    
         
         

 


Consolidated B-24 Liberator photo by Kevin Hong from 2015 Commemorative Air Force calendar.

The most produced multi-engine bomber in history, the Consolidated B-24 Liberator, was originally developed when Consolidated was asked to produce B-17s under license.  Consolidated engineers estimated that they could make an airplane that could fly farther, faster, and carry more bombs than the B-17 by using some of the features which they had used on their large flying boat designs.  They were correct, and the Liberator went on to serve in every theater of the war.  Between 1940 and 1945, 18,482 Liberators were built by Consolidated and under license by Ford at their Willow Run plant.

 

Sortie Records and associated newspaper clippings
 

Related documents

Individual Flight Records June 1944 through January 1945
Pilot Log Book

Operational Sortie Record, Pilot, 2nd Lt. Charles E. Cushing
 

Sortie Record Verification

 
     

Taxiing Instructions, Thurleigh, ENG.

Front

Back

Front

Back

Front

Back

Ship No. 053 Pilot:  Heraty
No date

Ship No. 053,  Pilot:  Heraty
No date, "06" written at top, front

Ship No. 053,  Pilot:  Heraty
No date, "24" written at top, front

     

Front

Back

Front

Back

Front

Back

Ship No. 053,  Pilot:  Heraty
No date

Ship No. 053,  Pilot:  Heraty
No date

Ship No. 515,  Pilot:  Cushing
No date, but likely Jan 1945 according to individual flight record.

 


Physical Exams & Clearance to Fly
       
Examination for Overseas Service, Station Hospital, Avon Park Bombing and Gunnery Range, 2nd Lt. Cushing, Certified without exceptions,
Jan 3, 1944
Officers' Clearance Certificate, Avon Park Army Air Field,  2nd Lt. Cushing,  Jan 3, 1944 Examination for Overseas Service, Dental Identification, Station Hospital, Avon Park Bombing and Gunnery Range, 2nd Lt. Cushing, 399th Bomb Squadron, 88th Bomb Group,  Record,  Jan 3, 1944 Examination for Overseas Service, Station Hospital, Report of Dental Survey, Avon Park Bombing and Gunnery Range, 2nd Lt. Cushing, 399th Bomb Squadron, 88th Bomb Group, ,  Jan 3, 1944
       
Physical Exam of Flying Personnel, Return to flying status, 2nd Lt. Cushing cleared for flying duty, 488th Bombardment Group (H), MacDill Field, Tampa, Fla.
Jan 11, 1944
Physical Examination for Flying,  2nd Lt. Cushing cleared for flying duty, 488th Group Dispensary, MacDill Field, Tampa, Fla.  Feb 22, 1944
See reverse side
Officer's Post Clearance, , 488th Bomb Group (H), MacDill Field, Tampa, Fla.  Apr 5, 1944, 2nd Lt. Cushing actual departure date Apr 7, 1944.
See reverse side
Clearance Sheet, Sec. E, 111th AAF Base Unit, Langley, Va.  May 26, 1944
       
   
Army Air Forces Physical Fitness Test and Record Card - Front, MacDill Airfield, Mar 3, 1944
See reverse side
Recommendation of flying status for 1st Lt. Cushing by AAF Station Hospital, Office of the Flight Surgeon, Romulus Army Air Field, Mich.
May 10, 1945
   
       
       

Receipts
 
Receipt for 1 parachute, seat type, 488th Bomb Group (H), Crew # 21, 2nd Lt. Cushing,  MacDill Air Field, Tampa, Fla.
Mar 9, 1944
Receipt for Mess Charges, 2nd Lt. Cushing, 8th AF Replacement Depot, APO 635 (Burtonwood, ENG.) Jun 10, 1944 Memorandum Receipt for Kit - Lt. Cushing, Flying clothing & Equipment, 367 Bomb Sq., Thurleigh Air Field, ENG. Aug 5, 1944 Receipt for Mess Charges, Office of the Station Mess Officers, Lt. Cushing, AAF Station 111, APO 557 (Thurleigh AF, ENG.) Jan 21, 1945 Receipt for Mess Charges, Lt. Cushing, 70th Replacement Depot APO 652 (Stone, Staffordshire, ENG.)
Jan 23, 1944
         
         

Reclassification Notices
 
Classification of 1st Lt. Cushing to class 2, 553 AAF Base Unit, 3rd Ferrying Group, Ferrying Div., ATC, Romulus Army Air Field, Mich.
May 8, 1945
Description of Maneuvers Reverse side of previous document, May 8, 1945 Reclassification of 1st Lt. Cushing to class 3, 553 AAF Base Unit, 3rd Ferrying Group, Ferrying Div., ATC, Romulus Army Air Field, Mich.
Sep 1, 1945
     

Shipping Tickets
 
Various articles of clothing, accessories, equipment, parachute. Consignor: Sub Depot Supply Officer, 323rd Sub Depot, Stuttgart Army Air Field, Ark.  Consignee: Charles E. Cushing A/C,
 Dec 4, 1943
Gas mask
Consignor: Chemical Property Officer, Stuttgart AAF, Ark. 
Consignee: 2nd Lt. Charles E. Cushing,
Dec 4, 1943
Seat-type parachute
Consignor: Charles E. Cushing, 2nd Lt. co-pilot, Consignee: AAF Supply Officer, 62nd Sub Depot, MacDill Field, Tampa, Fla.   Mar 9, 1944
Accessories, mess equipment, ID tag necklace, Consignor: Quartermaster, MacDill Field, Tampa, Fla.
Consignee: Charles E. Cushing, 2nd Lt. AC, 488th Bomb Group,
crew 21, MacDill Field, Mar 28, 1944
Trunk locker
Consignor: Area Command Quartermaster, MacDill Field, Tampa, Fla. Consignee: 2nd Lt. Charles E. Cushing, 21C, 488th B. Gr. MacDill Field, Tampa Fla.
Mar 31, 1944
         

Bulova navigator watch, Consignor: Port Supply Officer, Sta. #3 NAW ATC, Dow Field, Bangor, Me.  Consignee: 2nd Lt. Cushing, B-17 #7740 Co-pilot, May 28, 1944

Sun glasses, jacket, trousers, Consignor: Port Supply Officer, Sta. #3 NAW ATC, Dow Field, Bangor, Me.  Consignee: 2nd Lt. Cushing, B-17 #7740, May 28, 1944 Various accessories, equipment & clothing, Consignor: Charles E. Cushing, 2nd Lt.  Ship to: 367th Bomb Sq. (H), 306th Bomb Gr. (H), APO 557 (Thurleigh AF, ENG.)
Jul 7, 1944
Flying clothing bag, Flyer's kit bag, summer flying jacket, Consignor: 367th Bomb Sq. (H), 306th Bomb Gr. (H), APO 557 (Thurleigh AF, ENG.) Ship to: Charles E. Cushing, 1st Lt.,
Jan 21, 1945
Navigation watch and set of navigation tables, Consignor: C. E. Cushing 1st. Lt., 306th Bomb Grp (H), AAF 111, APO 557 (Thurleigh, ENG.), Consignee: Group Navigator (Capt. J.D. MacPherson, HQ 306th Bomb Grp, AAF 111, APO 557, Jan 21, 1945
         
         

Soldier's Individual Pay Records
 
Soldier's Individual Pay Record booklet, Charles E. Cushing
Front cover, May 12, 1943
Soldier's Individual Pay Record booklet, page 1, May 12, 1943 Soldier's Individual Pay Record booklet, page 2 & 3, Identification info, Changes affecting pay status, Casual data, May 12, 1943 Soldier's Individual Pay Record booklet, page 4 & 5, Deductions ledger (blank), May 12, 1943
       
 
Soldier's Individual Pay Record booklet, Instructions Governing the Issuance and Use of Soldier's Individual Pay Record, page 6, May 12, 1943 Soldier's Individual Pay Record booklet, Back cover,
May 12, 1943

Pay Guide for Officers, Army Nurses and Warrant Officers on Change of Station, Headquarters Avon Park Bombing Range, Office of the Finance Officer, Avon Park, Fla.  Dec. 1943

 
       
       

Stuttgart AAF Graduation Commencement Program leather booklet
         
Embossed Cover
Stuttgart Army Air Field
The Commanding Officer
Stuttgart Army Air Field
Announces the Graduation of Class 43-K on Sunday, Dec. Fifth Nineteen Hundred Forty-Three
Stuttgart, Arkansas
Class Roll
Student Officers
A through Z
Class Roll
Aviation Cadets
Adams through Cox
Class Roll
Aviation Cadets
Cox through Gilbert
         
 
Class Roll
Aviation Cadets
Gilroy through Keyser
Class Roll
Aviation Cadets
Kiernan through Pease
Class Roll
Aviation Cadets
Pederson through Spencer
Class Roll
Aviation Cadets
Stack through Zwolinski
 
         
         



The North American B-25 Mitchell, a twin-engine bomber that became standard equipment for the Allied Air Forces in World War II, was perhaps the most versatile aircraft of the war. It became the most heavily armed airplane in the world, was used for high- and low-level bombing, strafing, photoreconnaissance, submarine patrol and even as a fighter, and was distinguished as the aircraft that completed the historic raid over Tokyo in 1942. It required 8,500 original drawings and 195,000 engineering man-hours to produce the first one, but nearly 10,000 were produced from late 1939, when the contract was awarded to North American Aviation, through 1945. Basically, it was a twin-tail, mid-wing land monoplane powered by two 1,700-hp Wright Cyclone engines. Normal bomb capacity was 5,000 pounds. Some versions carried 75 mm cannon, machine guns and added firepower of 13 .50-caliber guns in the conventional bombardier's compartment. One version carried eight .50-caliber guns in the nose in an arrangement that provided 14 forward-firing guns.  Information from Boeing  Photo from Wikipedia

 


Misc. Documents

 


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Avon Park Orientation, Rules & Regulations, Dec. 1943

On Dec. 5, 1943, 2nd Lt. Cushing was transferred from Stuttgart to the 3rd AF, 88th Bomb Group at Avon Park Army Air Field, Fla.   None of Charles' Pilot Logs or Individual Flight Records show flight time at Avon Park.  Further evidence that he didn't have any flight time there was that his total to-date hours at Stuttgart are carried over to his initial to-date hours at MacDill.  His assignment at Avon Park  terminated on Jan. 4, 1944, at which time he was transferred to MacDill Air Field in Tampa.

This document doesn't refer anywhere to Avon Park, but a section on rules for swimming in Lake Arbuckle confirms this as an Avon Park document. 

Established in early 1942 as a B-17 Flying Fortress heavy bombardment group, Avon Park was assigned to II Bomber Command as a heavy bomber Operational Training Unit (OTU)for air-to-ground bombing and antisubmarine patrol.   The group was assigned primarily to airfields in the Pacific Northwest under II BC; performing training of new units, then becoming a Replacement Training Unit (RTU). Reassigned to III Bomber Command in November 1943 when Second Air Force began to exclusively train B-29 Superfortress aircrews. It continued as a B-17 RTU until the end of heavy bomber training of replacement aircrews in May 1944 when it was inactivated.

   
Calling Card Certificate of completion of primary flight training, Cape Institute of Aeronautics, Harris Field, Cape Girardeau, Mo.,
Jul 29, 1943
Certificate of termination of  assignment to public quarters, Avon Park AAF, effective Jan 4, 1944, Rank: 2nd Lt. Certificate of termination of officers' assignment to quarters, MacDill AAF, effective Apr 7, 1944, Rank 2nd Lt.
       
Certification of Familiarization with B-17 Aircraft, Transition Flight Section, 553rd AAF, 3rd Ferrying Group, Air Transport Command (ATC), Romulus AAF, Mich., Rank: 1st Lt., May 8, 1945 Certification of Familiarization with PT-23, BT-13 , BT-15, (Vultee) & AT-10 Aircraft, Transition Flight Section, 553rd AAF, 3rd Ferrying Group, Air Transport Command (ATC), Romulus AAF, Mich., Rank: 1st Lt., May 8, 1945 Checklist for Last Will & Testament and Power of Attorney
HBC 488th Bomb Group (H)
MacDill Field, Tampa
Rank: 2nd Lt., Jan 25, 1944
Check sheet for various items required to be carried on person, including forms, cards, tags, spectacles.  Rank, 2nd Lt.  No date, no location.
       
       
Clearance sheet for officers, AAF Station 111, APO 557 (Thurleigh, ENG.) certifying all accounts settled and all property returned and transfer to 70th RD on Jan 22, 1945.  Rank: 1st Lt.  Dated Jan 20, 1945. Corrected Extract p.1, Stuttgart AAF Advanced Training, Arkansas.  Orders to transfer to 3rd AF 88 Bomb Group, Avon Park, Fla.  Rank: 2nd Lt.  Dec 5, 1943
See page 2
Extract p.1, Personnel orders, Maxwell Field, Ala.
2nd Lieutenants completed prescribed course, now certified as pilots effective Dec 5, 1943, dated Nov 27, 1943.
See page 2    See page 3
Individual Issue Record for Equipment, Clothes, Kit, Parachute, etc. Mar 1944, Rank: 2nd Lt., May 27 & 28, 1944.
       
Instructor's Check Sheet for Bombing Pilot, Co-Pilot, Bombardier and Navigator.  Rank: 2nd Lt.  Feb 5, 1944.
See page 2.
Inventory Certificate, APO 652 (Stone, England), Jan 25, 1945.
Inventory of numerous articles of clothing and accessories.
List - Minimum required clothing and equipment, 3rd AF, 488th Bombardment Group (H), MacDill Field, Tampa, Fla.  Items to be issued (Quartermaster equipment)  or purchased by all officers, medical, signal corps and Army Air Corps equipment.  Rank: 2nd Lt., Mar 8, 1944 Map, MacDill Field
Tampa, FL - Jan 1944
       
Pilot Instrument Certificate Application and Flight Check Form, C-45 aircraft, Rank: 1st Lt., May 24, 1945 Schedule - Avon Park AAF Bus Schedule.  Not dated, but Charles was stationed at Avon Park in Dec 1943. Soldier Information Sheet
Rank: 2nd Lt.   488th bomb group (MacDill Field)
Jan 1, 1944.
Statement of Service
FM & A/C Aug 13, 1942 - Dec 4, 1943, 2nd Lt. Dec 5, 1943 to date.  Not dated.
       


Click to enlarge
"The German soldier who carries this safe conduct is using it as a sign of his genuine wish to give himself up. He is to be disarmed, to be well looked after, to receive food and medical attention as required and to be removed from the danger zone as soon as possible."

Allied "Passierschien" World War II Safe Conduct Pass ZG61
By SGM Herbert A. Friedman (Ret.)

The story of the "passierschein" ("safe conduct pass") for Germany is interesting because of the alleged belief on the part of the Allies that the German officer or soldier would react in a positive way to an official looking document. Therefore, the Americans and British collaborated to produce a fancy official document bearing national seals and signatures that would rival a stock certificate. They produced the leaflets late in the war in various formats with different code numbers.

Paul M.A. Linebarger mentions the theory in Psychological Warfare, Infantry Journal Press, Washington D.C., 1948. He says:

Germans liked things done in an official and formal manner, even in the midst of chaos, catastrophe and defeat. The Allied obliged, and gave the Germans various forms of very official looking ‘surrender passes.’ One is printed in red and has banknote-type engraving which makes it resemble a soap-premium coupon.

Before the United States entered World War II in December 1941, several different styles of surrender leaflets had been printed and dropped by the British, French and Russians on the  German Army, with no overall supervision or uniformity. The leaflets were of various colors, sizes, fonts, and differing surrender instructions.   When American troops arrived in the United Kingdom, things changed.

 
The U.S. and U.K. worked together for the first time to prepare a standardized safe conduct leaflet. The final version of the "passierschein" has been referred to as the most effective single leaflet of the war, so much so that the Allied Supreme Headquarters issued a directive in 1944 forbidding reproduction of the safe conduct pass on other leaflets, wanting to protect the authenticity of the document.

ZG61 was dropped from September 1944 to March 1945. The Allies printed 67,345,800 and dropped 65,750,000. This leaflet bears the name and signature of General Eisenhower. It was printed in both red and green.

The text on the back:  "Basic Principles of International Law regarding Prisoner of War."

(According to the Hague Convention, 1907, and the Geneva Convention, 1929)

1. From the moment of surrender, German soldiers are regarded as P.O.W.s and come under the protection of the Geneva Convention. Accordingly, their military honor is fully respected.

2. P.O.W.s must be taken to assembly points as soon as possible, which are far enough from the danger zone to safeguard their personal security.

3. P.O.W.s receive the same rations, qualitatively and quantitatively, as members of the Allied armies, and, if sick or wounded, are treated in the same hospitals as Allied troops.

4. Decorations and valuables are to be left with the P.O.W.s. Money may be taken only be officers of the assembly points and receipts must be given.


Click to enlarge

5. Sleeping quarters, accommodation, bunks and other installations in P.O.W. camps must be equal to those of Allied garrison troops.

6. According to the Geneva Convention, P.O.W.s must not become subject of reprisals nor be exposed to public curiosity. After the end of the war they must be sent home as soon as possible.

Soldiers in the meaning of the Hague Convention (IV, 1907) are: All armed persons, who wear uniforms or any insignias which can be recognized from a distance.

RULES FOR SURRENDER

To prevent misunderstanding when surrendering, the following procedure is advisable: Lay down arms, take off helmet and belt, raise your hands and wave a handkerchief or this leaflet.

Learn more about the Safe Conduct Pass and see more versions at the source for the above information, The Allied Passierschien, by SGM Herbert A. Friedman (Ret.)


 

 
 Soldier Biography Card Front
Basic vital statistics, address, names parents, siblings. 
Jan 6, 1944
Soldier Biography Card reverse
 Education, Employment, References, Present & Previous addresses.
Jan 6, 1944
Tally sheet, Incoming - MacDill Field, Mar 28, 1943.  One gas mask.  
       

 

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