Street Bridge -
Part 2 of 4
THE SECOND LAFAYETTE STREET BRIDGE
Bridges are designed to meet the conditions of the time when they are built
and are rarely designed for what future conditions might be. Tampa’s leaders
did not consider things like electricity and streetcars when the first Lafayette
Street Bridge was built, nor the probable extent of suburban development across
The first Lafayette Street Bridge did not hold up well. In September 1892, city engineer J.H. Neff reported to the mayor that the west approach of the bridge was in a dangerously poor condition, and recommended that all of the pilings should be replaced. Neff regarded the bridge approach’s design to be a “very inferior plan.” That same month the electric company’s cable at the bridge burned out, causing the electric company to use a switch connection to connect wires. Every time the drawbridge opened at night, Hyde Park’s lights went out until the bridge closed.
The city council passed an ordinance authorizing the issuance of $350,000 in
bonds to take care of the city’s outstanding debt, and to pay for street paving,
bridge repairs, and other infrastructure needs. However, some citizens felt that
it was imprudent for Tampa to be issuing bonds at this time.
Opponents of the bonds, led by F. A. Salomonson, filed an injunction, whereupon Judge Barron Phillips found that the ordinance had been drawn illegally. The city then appealed the decision to the state supreme court. Although the city incurred an additional expense of $2,000 in legal fees to fight the suit, Salomonson claimed that he had only acted upon his patriotic duty as a citizen.
Financing Becomes a Campaign
Salomonson, the former mayor, was once again a mayoral candidate. Therefore, the bridge and the bonds became an issue in the campaign of March 1895, a heated contest between Salomonson and M.B. Macfarlane. Matthew Biggar Macfarlane, a native of Scotland educated in the northern United States, was a lawyer and later served as Collector of Customs for the District of Tampa. M. B. and Hugh Macfarlane were brothers. M.B. Macfarlane was also quite prominent in Florida’s Republican Party, and would be an unsuccessful mayoral candidate in 1895 and unsuccessful gubernatorial candidate in 1900 and 1904.
Frederick Salomonson was born in Almelo, Netherlands and in 1882,
arrived in New York as a representative of a Dutch syndicate that had
purchased vast tracts of land in Florida. After completing his
business, Salomonson decided to remain in Florida and moved to
Jacksonville where he worked two years for a railroad company. In late
1884, Salomonson relocated to Tampa where he attempted to establish
himself in the real estate business and married Florence A. Newcomb on
Jan.1, 1885. He realized that railroad access to Tampa and the
expansion of its harbor facilities would greatly increase the value of
town’s real estate. However, it was not until 1887, when he met John
Henry Fessenden, with whom he co-founded the Tampa Real Estate and Loan
Association, that Salomonson met with success.
Salomonson was the manager of the Tampa Real Estate & Loan Association, and in 1892, he built a home on the bay’s shore at the foot of Hyde Park Avenue and sold the surrounding lots. This area is now condos, offices and the Hyde Park Avenue overpass of Bayshore for access to Davis Islands. By 1895, he had served three terms as city councilman. Salomonson won the mayoral race by a margin of 50 votes in 1893, and the Tribune editorialized: “It is a triumph of the people over the monopolists, over the wreckers, obstructionists, taxeaters, and politicians.” F. A. Salomonson served three terms as Mayor of Tampa, 1893-94, 1895-96, and 1904-1906.
Following Henry B. Plant’s death in 1899, the holding company couldn’t get out of the hotel business quickly enough. The showplace, once the jewel of Tampa, had become known as "Plant's Folly" and had been profitless for some time, so it was put up for sale. F. A. Salomonson, made a ridiculous offer of $125,000 and it was snapped up. His first callers turned out to be City tax collectors who presented a large bill for delinquent and current taxes. Salomonson, claiming the property was sold to him free of encumbrances, backed out of the deal. So for $90,000 and the cancellation of tax bills, the City of Tampa in 1906 became the owner of a world-famous hotel.
Bay Hotel is 90 Years Old" by Hampton Dunn, The Sunland
Tribune, Nov. 1981.
Tibbetts Corner, Lafayette and Franklin St.
Franklin St. between Lafayette and Jackson, 1884
Above and to the right are Sanborn fire insurance maps showing almost all the structures on this block were made of wood (yellow buildings.) Stone buildings were colored blue, brick structures pink. The Tibbetts brothers owned a confectionery on this block, and if they were around in 1884, they may have been at Franklin and Lafayette's southeast corner where you see "Bakery Restaurt" in the 1884 map. A "1" or a "2" indicates 1-story or 2-story structure.
Franklin St. between Lafayette and Jackson, 1887
Place your cursor on the map to see this area in 1889
Notice that by 1889, there were trolley tracks on Franklin St. and Lafayette which did not exist on the 1884 or 1887 maps, and many of the new spaces have not yet been occupied ("Vac."). A red dot on the 1889 map marks the location of the Tibbetts shop, adjacent to the barber shop.
fire destroyed this block in August of 1887. By 1889, the block
was rebuilt with all brick buildings.
Tampa Journal August 4, 1887
Tibbetts Corner in
1888-89, looking southwest. Notice the barber pole on the street,
left of center of photo.
A view of Tibbetts Corner in the 1890s, looking east along Lafayette. The progress is apparent: Trolley tracks on Lafayette curve northward and merge with Franklin St. tracks, telephone poles, street lights, flag pole and trees.
Detail below shows close up of the man on the roof by the Tibbetts Corner sign.
Cartter, Milo & Hosea Cartter (M. S. Cartter & Co., St. Louis, Mo.) 127,564 Jun. 4, 1872 Howe truss configuration. One-piece shoe to receive the timber end post, timber. Timber top chord and crossed diagonals. Wrought-iron bottom chord and verticals. Special shoe connects bottom chord, end post, vertical rod, and timber diagonal.
Dredging Company Selected to Build the Bridge
In late February 1895, the city council had authorized a loan of $45,000 to build a new bridge across the Hillsborough River at Lafayette Street. Mayor Easley and the bridge committee had hired the Florida Dredging Company.
The Florida Dredging Company,
based in Jacksonville, specialized in river and harbor improvements. Milo
S. Cartter (also of M.S. Cartter & Co., which supplied the iron work for
the bridge) was President of Florida Dredging Company. In 1894,
Cartter, along with Capt. James A. Bryan, and others, organized The
Florida Dredging Company, with Bryan as General Manager in Tampa.
James E. and Alexander R. Merrill and Arthur Stevens of the
Merrill-Stevens Engineering Company were the directors.
Bond Issues Settled
Less than two weeks after his re-election as mayor, Salomonson spoke to the city council about the city’s financial state. The outstanding bonded indebtedness of the city was $100,000, and the funded indebtedness was also $100,000, for a total debt of $200,000. Property in Tampa was assessed at approximately $5 million, but the city’s script was selling slowly. Salomonson recanted his prior ardent stand against the sale of bonds, while acknowledging his continuing concern about faults in the city charter and inequities in how the funds would be distributed. He recommended that the city first draw up a new charter, then vote a bonds issue, then install a sewer system and build a new bridge at Lafayette Street. The council agreed, and instructed the city attorney to draw up a new charter authorizing a Board of Public Works and changing mayoral elections from annual to biennial events.
The Florida Dredging Company began building the second Lafayette Street Bridge on June 1, 1895. At the same time, workers built a footway 100 feet upstream from the old bridge as a temporary crossing. Although there were as many as twenty-five men at a time working on the bridge, Tampans urged the contractors to use more workers and finish the bridge more quickly. Meanwhile, construction became a public spectacle, and the builders asked rubberneckers to stay out of their way, because bridge building was a complicated undertaking. Workers cleared old bridge timbers out of the river and the Water Works Water Company re-laid mains on both sides of the river at the bridge. Crews drove pilings for retaining walls, and laid timbers on the pilings. Masons covered the tops of the timbers. Divers built cofferdams around pier emplacements.
104,110 Jun. 14, 1870 Howe truss configuration. Timber upper chord and diagonals. Lower chord of interlocking iron plates. Single iron shoe to receive both diagonals at panel points.
More Controversy--Mayor Salomonson
|On May 23, 1895, the Tampa Morning Tribune announced that the City had awarded Captain John A. McKay a contract to fill the Lafayette Street Bridge abutments, at a cost of 45 cents per cubic yard. On May 28, the city council met in a special session. One issue brought up by Mayor Salomonson (who had taken office in March 1895 for his second term, after Mayor Robert Easely), was the question of how McKay had been given this abutment contract for 45 cents when a Mr. Black was doing the same type of work for only 20 cents. Secondly, the city had closed the Lafayette Street Bridge without proper public notice (the contract for city printing was awarded to one paper, but the notice appeared in the other). Thirdly, partial demolition had rendered the bridge unusable. Salomonson’s opinion was that the only thing to do was finish the work as quickly as possible.||Bridge issues were only part of a long litany of mayoral complaints about how the city’s business was being handled: the contracts for city improvements were not on file at the city archives, the contracts had not been signed by the mayor (as required), proper public notices had not been filed for work to be done, correct public approval of paving projects as specified by state law had not been obtained, various city departments had not been filing required reports, there were no records of what lots had been sold in the city cemetery, etc. While some of these issues are minor and others more significant, together they paint the picture of a small-town government overwhelmed by growth.|
The McKay Family in Tampa
John A. McKay was the third son of Captain James McKay, Sr. and Matilda Cail McKay. James was a native of Scotland who was one of Tampa's early pioneers, arriving here in 1846 with considerable means and rapidly added to his wealth; soon becoming the leading citizen in financial affairs. He engaged here in the mercantile business, advancing supplies and money to the farmers to grow their cotton crops. He also engaged largely in shipping, his vessels increasing fast in number, and making profitable voyages to many southern ports, foreign and domestic. During the Civil War, he was one of the primary blockade runners of Tampa Bay against the Union navy. McKay, who had not relinquished his British citizenship when he came to this country, ran his blockade-running ships under the English flag. He served as the 6th Mayor of Tampa and municipal judge in 1859-1860 without holding American citizenship, which may be a real oddity in American politics. He also owned much real estate and cattle in Tampa and surrounding areas. The McKay family home was located at Franklin St. and Jackson St., where today's 1 Tampa City Center skyscraper sits. See The Final Battle for Fort Brooke at Tampapix
Capt. James McKay, Sr.
first Tampa City Commissioners met in 1846, the general topics were
taxes, transportation, a new courthouse and jail, and downtown
development. The next year, the Commissioners accepted the bid
of Captain James McKay to construct a two-story courthouse at
Lafayette St. and Franklin St., which was 20 ft x 45 ft and cost
taxpayers $1,358. The first courthouse, a log building burned by
Seminole Indians in 1836, possibly stood in "Courthouse Square" the
northeast corner of Lafayette St. and Franklin St. A third
structure was built in 1855, which cost $5,000 and was used until
1891. This building was also two stories high but was 76 ft long, by
45 ft wide. The first floor was dedicated for City Hall, Judges of
Probates, Clerk’s, Sheriff’s Offices and the Grand Juror’s room. A 42'
by 45' courtroom was on the second floor. In addition, the courthouse
was mounted with a dome and tower and was finished in a combination of
Grecian, Ionic and Corinthian orders.
Of course, it also had a picket fence to
keep the animals out of the courtyard. The fourth courthouse,
built in 1891 on the same location, was designed and built by
architect J. A. Wood and W.H. Kendrick, of Tampa Bay Hotel fame.
See Lafayette Street Bridge History page 1
James McKay's oldest son, James McKay, II., was elected State Senator in 1881. After the arrival of the railroad to Tampa in 1884, McKay, II became the commander of the H. B. Plant Steamship Line which plied the Caribbean Sea. During the Spanish-American War, Captain McKay II headed the expeditionary fleet which took General Shafter’s Army to Cuba. He showed great skill and ability in the loading of troops and materials at Port Tampa, and the unloading on the coast of Cuba. The former rebel received laudable praises from many in high office in Washington for bravery and his excellent performance in the war effort. James McKay, II served as Tampa's 34th mayor from June 5, 1902 to June 5, 1904.
James McKay, Sr. and Matilda's third son, Capt. John Angus McKay, like his father and brother James, became a sea captain. He commanded several of his father’s ships, and served the Confederate army throughout the war. After the war he served as deputy collector of customs at the port of Tampa for several years, and in 1870, was elected as a delegate to the State Conservative Convention. In 1876, he was elected to serve as chairman of the County Commission. In the latter part of the 1870s he purchased the Orange Grove Hotel, the most popular hostelry in pioneer days.
One of his lasting contributions to Florida is the preservation of Florida history through his "Pioneer Florida" series which appeared in the Sunday Tribune for approximately 15 years. The Tampa Historical Society honors his memory with the yearly D. B. McKay Award for outstanding service in the cause of Florida history.
|Read much more about the entire McKay family at: James McKay, I, the Scottish Chief of Tampa Bay by Tony Pizzo and James McKay, II by Edwin Dart Lambright Also see Genealogical Records of the Pioneers of Tampa and some who came after them and 13th Judicial Circuit - Courthouse History|
|Tampa City Hall, Police Dept. and Tampa's Oldest Existing House|
Tampa City Hall and Tampa Police Dept.
Headquarters at 315 Lafayette, 1905. Florida Avenue is on the
left, Lafayette St. is on the right.
The 1895 map on the right shows the relative location of City Hall to the buildings on Franklin St. and the newly-built Hillsborough County Courthouse. Also on this map can be seen what is now Tampa's oldest house, the yellow structure marked "D" (dwelling) at the lower right at Florida Avenue and Jackson St. The house is barely visible at the left edge of the photo.
In 1850, 15-year old Sheldon Stringer lived in this house with his sister Laura, brother Samuel and mother Mary, who was widowed. By 1860, Sheldon had become a doctor and was still living with his mother Mary and sister Laura. Sheldon was 25. Mary ran a boarding house, probably in their home. By 1867, the Stringers had moved to Brooksville, Hernando Co. Imboden Stalnaker purchased the 1842 frame home in 1914 and had it moved to 3210 8th Ave. to save it from destruction when the new City Hall was to be built at this location in 1915.
In 1920, 58 year-old Imboden Stalnaker was living on 7th Ave in Ybor with wife Bell, son Karl, daughter Lillian and son Leo. Imboden was a retail grocery merchant. Imboden Stalnaker, described by the Tampa Tribune in his obituary as a “pioneer East Tampa merchant,” had been a school teacher, school principal, and owner of a mercantile store, before becoming a resident of Tampa 43 years prior to his death in 1948. His first venture in Tampa was a grain and fencing store on Whiting between Franklin and Tampa Streets. The business was later moved to Gary, formerly a separate entity, but would become part of the City of Tampa by annexation. On the 1930 census, Imboden was living at 3210 8th Ave with wife Bell, in the old home he had rescued from destruction. Imboden owned the home and it was valued at $2500.
It was here that young Leo Stalnaker spent his youth. Needing more room as his family circle expanded, Leo rebuilt and enlarged a bungalow two blocks from his boyhood home. On the same 1930 census, Imboden's son Leo Stalnaker was living at 3510 8th Ave with his wife, an adopted son, and son Leo Jr. and daughter Luella. Leo (the father) was a lawyer of general practice. It was during the stormy crime-ridden years of the Charlie Wall era that Leo Stalnaker, Sr. was appointed Municipal (Police Court) Judge in 1927. Stalnaker quickly earned a reputation as a “crusading magistrate.” He had already gained national attention during his 1927-28 term as a member of the Florida House of Representatives as an opponent of the teaching of evolution in the public schools. Showing neither fear nor favor, on his first day on the bench, Stalnaker quadrupled fines and gambling and liquor law violators got stiff jail sentences. Near the close of his productive and colorful career, Leo Stalnaker, Sr, at age 82, continued his service to the public and to the Bar when he was appointed General Master in Chancery for Hillsborough County Circuit Court on January 11, 1979. Read more about the illustrious life and career of Leo Stalnaker and about his son, Leo Stalnaker, Jr.
See a better and present-day photo of this house and another view of old City Hall at Tampa Changing and an excellent investigation into the current house's authenticity at Tampania Blog. See "Hortense the Beautiful" for more about our present City Hall, built in 1915.
Leo Stalnaker (Sr.)
Construction Halted Due To Funding
In June 1895, the municipal government enacted the new city charter, and almost immediately, the city council approved an ordinance calling for the sale of $350,000 in bonds. Construction work at the Lafayette Street Bridge halted on December 7, 1895, when the city cut off funding pending the results of the bond issue. The election results were a resounding 451 yeas versus 10 nays, showing an electorate strongly in favor of the bonds. At the January 1, 1896, city council meeting, Councilman Wall proposed a resolution that the unfinished bridge across the Hillsborough river be turned over to the commissioners of Public Works with instructions to finish said bridge, and that an appropriation of $15,000 be and the same is hereby made out of the $25,000 raised by bonds for general municipal improvements, and that said commissioners be requested to finish said bridge as soon as possible out of the first money coming in to their hands from the sale of bonds.
Councilmen Ramirez and Pons,
of the Fourth Ward, adamantly opposed Wall’s resolution, Ramirez asserting
that it was unfair to set a large amount aside for an improvement that
would only benefit two wards (the first and the third). Pons added that he
felt it unfair to take money from one ward and spend it in another,
skeptically adding that there was no guarantee that the bridge would not
end up costing $100,000.
||Councilmen Holmes, Dorsey, and Wall countered Ramirez and Pons, arguing that the bridge would indeed benefit the entire city; additionally, if the “ward plan” of appropriations were to be followed, no improvements would ever be made anywhere in the city. Regardless of whether finishing the new Lafayette Street Bridge would benefit the rest of the city, Hyde Park residents were certainly anxious for its completion. For them, the temporary footbridge was “an eyesore and a necessary evil.” The footbridge was a jinx for the towboat Mabie, which ran into it not once, but twice in a single week. The optimism felt in City Hall and Hyde Park after the resounding approval of the bonds quickly evaporated.|
H. B. Plant Declines To Provide Funding
Tampa city councilmen had yet to hear anything from W. N. Coler & Company, the New York bankers who had agreed to sell Tampa’s bonds. As of January 30, 1896, the city had received no money and no explanation from Coler & Co. The city council approached Henry B. Plant asking the Plant Investment Company to loan the $15,000 needed to finish the bridge; Plant turned them down. Plant rarely contributed money towards utility construction or public works in cities served by his railroads or where he had hotels, and avoided political or close personal associations in those cities.
Funding Arrives - Construction Resumes
In mid February 1896, the city received its first installment from the bonds of $11,000, and the bridge builders resumed work. Unfortunately, Tampa’s struggles with Coler & Co. continued for some time. The Tribune railed against Coler for months, accusing the company of hampering Tampa’s growth: “Instead of muddy streets and gloomy countenances, the people would be buoyant with bright anticipation of great improvements.” In December 1897, Pinnel & Co. of Chicago offered to take the entire issue, but the Board of Public Works rejected the offer because the deal would make it impossible to finish the proposed sewage system before quarantine regulations against excavations were to be enforced the following spring. Finally, in early 1898, the city announced that Rudolph Kleybolte & Co., of Cincinnati, through New York bankers and brokers Pierson & McCutcheson, had purchased the remainder of the bonds.
The Second Lafayette Street Bridge Opens
At the end of February 1896, Councilman Brengle of the bridge committee reported that the new bridge should open within a week. Brengle’s estimate proved to be a little optimistic, but on March 21, 1896, the second Lafayette Street Bridge did open to the public. In the middle of a Saturday morning, with little ceremony, workers cast aside the barriers at the feet of the bridge. The first carriage to cross was that of Mr. Hathaway, Manager of the Tampa Bay Hotel, who was accompanied by F. de C. Sullivan, Henry Plant’s private secretary. Together Hathaway and Sullivan drove to Mayor Salomonsen’s office, where City Engineer Neff and councilmen Brengle, Wall, and Beckwith joined them. These men then went to the Tampa Bay Hotel for an elegant lunch. Although few people were present at the bridge’s opening, word quickly spread and that afternoon a solid stream of wagons, carriages, and pedestrians flowed across the river.
Formal Dedication Ceremonies
A few days later, city leaders formally dedicated the bridge, with many flourishes. The Fifth Battalion Band played as eighteen mounted policemen and three carriages of dignitaries neared the bridge. Crowds of spectators filled the approaches. The hose wagon, engine, and hook and ladder truck from Station One added to the festive atmosphere, as Fire Chief Harris’ daughter Leslie waved to the crowds from amidst a mass of flowers. Precisely at the center of the bridge, the parade halted, as Reverend W. W. DeHart rose in his carriage, uncovered his head, and spoke: “In the name of the commonwealth of Tampa I now declare this bridge open on this the 24th day of March, 1896, and call on you one and all to join in giving three cheers and a tiger.” And so the parade continued to the grounds of the Tampa Bay Hotel where DeHart spoke from a balcony, heralding the bridge as tangible evidence of Tampa’s manifest destiny.
|On March 28, 1896, the first streetcar crossed the bridge. Mrs. Chester W. Chapin,
owner of the Consumers Electric Light and Street Railway Company ("Consumers"), gathered a
party in her custom-made parlor coach, which traveled from Ballast Point, to
Hyde Park, then across the bridge, to Franklin Street and thence to Ybor City. By time the car turned to go back, dusk had fallen and the partygoers shot Roman
candles from the trolley. On board the Chapin coach that day were Mr. and Mrs.
Chapin, their two daughters, F. Ward Chapin, Mayor Salomonson, J.A. Rummell, T.
C. Taliaferro, Peter O. Knight, H.C. Cooper, and G.D. Munsing.
on the 2nd Lafayette Street bridge for a parade, possibly for the grand
opening in 1896. (Source claims date of 1898)
Note the temporary footbridge upstream on the right, in the process of being dismantled.
Evolution of Tampa's Early Street Railway Systems
1897, a streetcar line was running along the bricked road along the
shoreline of Hyde Park, from downtown Tampa to Ballast Point. The
streetcar line encouraged development along the bay towards Ballast
Point. Mrs. Chester W. Chapin, controlling owner of Consumers
which operated the city's first electric trolley cars, built a beautiful
pavilion at the end of the line. It was of oriental design with little
wooden dragons cavorting along the roof and eaves. The two story
structure looked out over the clear water of Hillsborough Bay, with a
park of many acres surrounding it. A theatre and dance floor were on the
second floor. The first floor had a restaurant where shore dinners were
served; a bathhouse where bathing suits could be rented; and a daring
two story toboggan slide into the water.
park had amusements for adults and children. There was a Ferris wheel
and playground equipment. Animals were enclosed within a fence that
surrounded the banyan tree. The grounds provided ample space for
families to lay tablecloths and spread lavish picnics from baskets.
Jules Verne Park at Ballast Pt. was thus named by Mrs. Chapin, with her streetcar line carrying picnickers to the park for gala outings. Many romances blossomed under the moonlight as dancers partied on the handsome pavilion at the pier. Consumers went broke in 1899 and was sold to the Tampa Electric Co. This event caused the loss of one of the city's most unusual sights: the private trolley car of Mrs. Chapin. She had used the private car to sally forth to do her shopping, visit friends and run other errands; now this privilege was denied her. The Chapins soon moved from Tampa.
In 1897, at a cost of $150,000 an electrical dam was built on the river by Consumers Electric Light and Street Railway Company. The dam was located halfway between present-day 40th Street and 56th Street on the Hillsborough River (today's Temple Crest neighborhood.)
On December 13, 1898 the dam was dynamited by cattle barons angry at the loss of grazing land. They tried three times in the years to follow. The first on January 8, 1897, shortly after construction was completed. When the water is low, remnants of the dynamited dam can be seen.
In 1899 TECO bought the Consumers Electric Light and Street Railway Company and built a new electric generating dam downstream of the original site, north of Sulphur Springs.
This 1899 Sanborn fire insurance map shows the Consumers Electric Light & Street Railway Company's power house upstream on the Hillsborough River, 5 miles northeast of the courthouse.
In 1933, 24 hours of torrential rains
caused the 2nd TECO dam to fail and flood the lower portions of the
river, including Josiah Richardson's already suffering resort at Sulphur
Springs. Richardson had mortgaged the entire resort ($180,000 at
the time) to finance the construction of the water tower. Damage
to the resort was heavy, as well as to his shopping mecca, the Sulphur
Springs Arcade. Already in the midst of the Great Depression, the
businesses in the arcade failed, the Sulphur Springs Bank failed, and
Richardson lost everything.
The fire insurance map detail shows the plant operated night and day, and steam power from the coal and wood boilers generated the electricity only 3 months of the year. The boilers can be seen in pink (brick) with the brick chimney to the left. The rest of the year, the power from the water rushing through the turbines (blue - stone structure) generated power. The turbine shafts were connected by belts running into the building from the top, which turned the shafts connected to the dynamos, the small black squares along the dotted line at the top of the yellow structure. See this image larger.
Photouring Florida, "Jules Verne Park", by Hampton Dunn
Point, Cow Pastures to Condominiums by Patty Dervaes
The City Benefits by Contract with Consumers
Many of the new homes being built were elegant mansions for Tampa’s elite, and the streetcar made it possible for them to escape the city. The streetcar line benefited greatly from the Lafayette Street Bridge, and was of particular interest to the Chapins, who lived a mansion on the Bayshore. Consumers had a contract with the city allowing the streetcar line to use the bridge, and requiring the company to pay a portion of the cost to repair the approaches. The contract dated March 13, 1896, provided for payment of $100 per year rental.
A view from the Tampa Bay Hotel, 1898
This image is cropped from a larger image, see full size
The second Lafayette
Street bridge and Tampa Bay Hotel in 1902
A Tampa Electric "Birney" streetcar crossing the 2nd Lafayette St. bridge, 1902
Read about the resurrection of Tampa's Birney streetcars that currently run in Tampa, and see photos of them at Tampapix's feature "Tampa Streetcar Fest 2004"
The Honeymoon Is Over
The bridge had not been long open before public opinion turned from “crowning achievement” to something less favorable. On April 9, 1896, the Weekly Tribune reported that a well-known local architect had said the approaches to the bridge were dangerous -- dangerous for the bridge.
Mr. Knight, a civil engineer with South Florida Railroad, reported to the City Council a month later that the bridge was sound. But evidently the sand was a problem, and in the summer of 1896, the Board of Public Works hired W. H. Kendrick to pave the approaches. This was the first brick pavement laid in Tampa. As a local contractor, one of Kendrick’s best-known construction projects was the Hillsborough County courthouse. A third-generation Tampan, Kendrick was also involved in the city’s early streetcar companies. At the time, most Tampa streets were either unpaved or covered with cypress wood blocks. The blocks were poor pavers, as they rotted and had to be removed after a few years. The Good Road Movement was beginning to take shape nationwide, and many Tampa city council meetings discussed the cost/benefit aspects of paving streets with cypress, crushed rock, clay, or brick.
Repeated Bridge Failures
The second Lafayette Street Bridge
failed repeatedly. At times, it froze in the open position, blocking automotive
and streetcar traffic; other times it refused to open, disrupting river traffic.
Either way, it was a constant nagging source of irritation. One late summer
Sunday morning in 1898, the Lafayette Street Bridge broke when a small metal
piece, a yoke only four inches across, cracked just as the draw opened to let a
steamboat pass. Hyde Park residents were compelled to use rowboats to cross the
river, or to venture into West Tampa to cross the Fortune Street Bridge. Frank
Bruen was notified as soon as the
bridge stopped in the full open position, and set out to find City Engineer Hazelhurst. Mr. Hazelhurst was
ill, but his assistant was available. Perhaps
tongue in check, the Tampa Morning Tribune reported: “Knowing that quick work
was needed he soon drafted the plans for a new steel yoke, and sent the same to
the Merrill-Stevens Engineering Company, of Jacksonville, by mail Sunday night,
with an order to make the same at once.”
|The next day Bruen pointed out to
the engineers that Shea & Krause of Tampa could make the piece just as easily
and much more quickly. Until the bridge was fixed, which was accomplished by the
end of the week, a naval reserve cutter ran as a ferryboat. Unfortunately, the
repair lasted only until October, when the same small piece of metal again gave
Mayor Bowyer came to the rescue, rushing to the Tampa Fish and Ice Company
and requisitioning two boats for a free ferry service. This time, it took Shea &
Krause about five days and $500 to fix the bridge. Shea & Krause
were fated to have many struggles with the recalcitrant bridge. What had once
been a front-page story became merely a mention deep into the paper, as bridge
failures became commonplace. Metal bridges require frequent
maintenance, for example, painting, to stay in good operational condition. One
advantage to the concrete bridges that became popular in the twentieth century
was a reduction in maintenance costs.
Frank C. Bowyer, a native of West Virginia, came to Tampa in 1890. He worked as a broker and was the Tampa Steamship Company’s South Florida manager. Bowyer served as mayor from June 1898 to June 1900, including the Spanish-American War. Like so many of Tampa’s mayors, Bowyer was challenged by the growing city’s insufficient public works and municipal budgets too small to correct the shortcomings. Bowyer later served on the Chamber of Commerce and the Tampa Board of Trade.
In 1900, Hillsborough County commissioners awarded a contract to the Virginia Bridge Iron Company to build a span across the Alafia River between Peru and Riverview, and the new drawbridge used the old Lafayette ironwork.
Hyde Park and Bayshore Residents Want a New Bridge
When the second bridge proved inadequate and unreliable, Hyde Park and Bayshore residents and real estate agents claimed that construction of a new bridge would benefit the whole city. Yet it took years to get the new bridge. Tampa’s government was strongly conservative when it came to fiscal matters, as were the voters, and bond issue after bond issue for public improvements was rejected or never even came to vote.
During the Spanish-American War, 1898
Tampa and the Tampa Bay Hotel played an important role in the Spanish American War of 1898. Plans had been made by Resident Manager D. P. Hathaway to close the hotel at the end of the season on April 1, 1898, and keep the doors shut until December. It remained closed for only several weeks when Henry Plant convinced the Secretary of War to allow Tampa to be the official port of embarkation for troops going to Cuba. The hotel was selected as Army Headquarters and served in addition as residence for guests and others who were in some way connected with the war. The Tampa Bay Hotel became the headquarters for the Army officers awaiting the order for embarkation. During this “rocking chair” phase of the war, it seemed that the Tampa Bay Hotel was the place to meet old friends, listen to good music and learn the latest gossip concerning the place in Cuba where the force would land. Plant's railroad and steamships helped transport troops to Florida and eventually to Cuba.
Major General Shafter and his staff enjoying the veranda
The Generals planned the war campaigns from the hotel. Officers and war correspondents stayed here in relative luxury, rocking on the veranda, sipping iced tea and planning and reporting strategies. Colonel Teddy Roosevelt and the Rough Riders trained in the camps near the hotel during the day. Clara Barton gathered supplies for the Red Cross and frequented the hotel. The enlisted men camped in tents around Tampa and other Florida cities, fought off mosquitoes, endured stifling temperatures, wool uniforms and boredom while waiting for the signal to start the war.
The encampments were located in these areas: Port Tampa, West
Tampa, and Tampa Heights. The camp of the Rough Riders was about 1 1/4
miles west of the Tampa Bay Hotel, around present day Kennedy Blvd. and Armenia
northward to Cass St. just south of where the
Ft. Homer Hesterly Armory on Howard Ave. is located today. Most of the
regular regiments plus the First Volunteer Cavalry and eight infantry regiments
of volunteers included with the Fifth Corps command were situated in various
areas from Port Tampa to Ybor City with principal encampment being in the two
hundred and fifty acres of pine forest specially designated military grounds at
Tampa Heights at Michigan Avenue (Columbus Drive.) General Joseph Wheeler
noting that his men had been camped at Port Tampa where no shade trees were
available was able to move the camp to West Tampa. Also encamped at West Tampa
were several hundred Cuban troops who would sail with the invasion fleet.
Altogether four regiments were at Port Tampa, seventeen at Tampa and four at
See The Rough Riders in Tampa for an excellent account of Tampa's role in the Spanish American War and how the influx of thousands of military men affected Tampa.
Encampment at Port Tampa
Col. Teddy Roosevelt, 1898
Cuban volunteers performing target practice in West Tampa
Troops at Port Tampa getting ready to board their ships
Troops charging through the water at Port Tampa
You can see hundreds of photos taken in Tampa during the Spanish American War at the Harvard Collection. Do a "Quick Search" for Tampa at the upper right of this page. Some hits will be photos not taken in Tampa, but part of a collection that includes "Tampa" in the title.
Thomas Edison Film shot in Tampa, March
From Edison films "war extra" catalog: A wide plain, dotted with tents, gleaming white in the bright sunshine. Soldiers moving about everywhere, at all sorts of duties. In the background looms up a big cigar factory; giving the prosaic touch to the picture needful to bring out in sharp contrast the patriotism with which the scene inspires us. The camera was on a rapidly moving train, so the panoramic view is a wide one, and remarkably brilliant.
Robert Mügge and the
The Mugge home at Jackson & Marion St., 1922
Robert Mugge was a blonde German immigrant who came to America at age 17, departing from Glasgow, Scotland and arriving at the Port of New York on Sept. 19, 1870 on the steamship Iowa. He married in Indiana where he and his wife had 3 children, then decided to move to Cuba for warmer weather, as he was an asthma-sufferer. Probably departing from Mobile by schooner, their ship stopped in Tampa to unload cargo. Around 1875, they arrived in Tampa where Mugge decided he liked the town and decided to stay. Tragically, Robert's wife and three children died in a yellow fever epidemic. He then corresponded with Caroline Rautenstrauch in Germany who later joined him in Tampa and married. Together, they started a large family (nine children that survived, and two who died very young.) More of his family followed soon thereafter, including Louis Mann, his brother-in-law, who was a tailor. Mugge and Mann decided to go into business together and as a sideline they opened a grocery and general merchandise store. Robert was a jeweler by trade. He bought a quarter of a block of land located at the northeast corner of Marion and Jackson streets. According to records in the court house, he paid $50 for it. There he built a two-story wooden building. The store faced Marion Street with rooms for rent on the second floor. The family lived in another two-story building in the rear facing Jackson Street.
Robert Mugge 1900 U.S. Census in Tampa
The 1900 US Census shows Robert Mugge living at 302 Marion St. in Tampa. It shows Robert was born in Jan. of 1854 in Germany and was age 46. It shows that he immigrated in 1860, had been in the US for 40 years and was a naturalized citizen, but this information appears to be inaccurate, possibly given by Caroline who was his 2nd wife. Ship passenger records of the SS Iowa show he arrived in 1870. See a portion of the list. He was married to Caroline for 17 years who was the mother of 8 children, with 7 living at the time. Robert's business was "Saloon business." Robert & Caroline's children were listed as Louise, Eugene, Frances, Albert, Lannie, Martha and Willie (age 5 mos.). Their 1910 census shows "Lannie" was actually "Melanie", and also lists one more child born after the 1900 census--Nettie B. The 1910 census provides more detail in regard to middle initials: Louise M., Eugene G., Frances B., August B. (who is of age to have been the "Albert" listed in 1900), Melanie W., Martha W., and Nettie B. A widowed sister of Robert Mugge is also in their home in 1910, Bertha Berger, and a daughter-in-law Wilhemina Mugge. Their 1910 census also indicates that Caroline was Robert's second wife they had been married for 27 years and this was Caroline's first marriage. Louise had been married for 6 years, but her husband is not listed in the household, and Eugene had been married for 3 years; his wife might be Wilhemina. Eugene was a jewelry travelling salesman, and Robert's occupation was wholesale liquor dealer. On the 1920 census, Caroline is widowed, August is married and his wife might be "Minnie" who is listed in the home as daughter-in-law to Caroline. On on the 1930 census, August is found doing quite well in a home valued at $10,000 on Sunset Drive in Suburb Beautiful (today's Bayshore Blvd. area) with wife "Minna"and 4 children. August was the president of a real estate company.
In the ensuing years, Robert Mugge
literally helped build Tampa. He was the first to put up street
lights in the neighborhood of his home in 1884, he owned a bottling
plant near his home, built an electric light plant on Central Ave., an
ice manufacturing plant (he bottled for Anheuser-Busch), and opened the
first legal distillery in Florida at Cass St. and Central Ave. Mugge
became a successful beer distributor for Anheuser-Busch, and successful
liquor and wine wholesaler, as well as being a watchmaker and saloon
operator. In 1886 the first hand water pump for fighting fires was
donated to the city by Mr. Robert Mugge. Known as the Mugge pump it was
equipped with 350 feet of two-inch hose and was dragged through the city
streets by hand.
At right, the Mugge property after demolition. The Bay View Hotel can be seen at the left side of the photo on the right.
Mugge built an amusement park and numerous brick homes and buildings in Tampa, including the Bay View Hotel downtown at 218 Jackson St. in 1912. Originally, the hotel was to be a warehouse, but during its construction, Mugge changed his mind. Different from all other hotels of the day, Mugge described it as a cross between a YMCA and and a ten-story barroom. It had 125 rooms and a large, decorated lounge on every floor. At the time the Bay View Hotel was completed, Robert Mugge installed bowling alleys and pool tables on his property on Franklin Street.
On April 4, 1904 Robert Mugge's West Tampa saloon caught on fire. The building, located on Pine Street near Howard Avenue, was quickly devoured by the hungry flames, and before volunteer firemen arrived with their hoses reels, the blaze had spread to nearby homes and businesses. Authorities say the fire could have been contained to the initial area, but high winds from the northeast fanned the flames southwestward across Howard Avenue and west down to Armenia Avenue, consuming everything in their path, including the A. Santaella cigar factory at 1906 N. Armenia. The Leopold Powell Company on the northeast corner was spared due to the wind direction, but over 100 homes and 5 factories to the southwest were destroyed. All were constructed of highly flammable wood except for one factory, which was of brick. The high winds, lack of available water sources, and West Tampa's inadequate fire fighting capability were all blamed for the extensive damage. Losses were estimated to be $200,000. Read about this fire in detail.
Visit "Tampa's Bravest", a website dedicated to the history of Tampa's firefighters
Mugge Wholesale Liquors at 4190 E. Hillsborough Ave., 1935 (above) and 1937 (below)
In 1898, during the Spanish-American War, American troops were brought to Tampa by rail and they marched up Franklin Street to the northern part of the city where many were encamped. The camp was in the neighborhood of Michigan Avenue (now Columbus Drive). The soldiers were mostly volunteers from the west and were commanded by General Shafter, who had his headquarters in the Tampa Bay Hotel. Robert Mugge built a large saloon in an orange grove near the camp. The contractor had to build the entire structure in one day, including fixtures. The counter had a length of 80 feet and the soldiers were served by eight bartenders. It was open at all times and was known as the "Noah’s Ark."
Rough Riders listening to a service delivered by chaplain Henry A. Brown, with Theodore Roosevelt, Leonard Wood, Joseph Wheeler and other officers standing next to the tree in the right of the photograph.
When Tampa was first mentioned as an embarkation for the troops, Robert Mugge, who owned the franchise for selling August Busch's Budweiser beer on Florida's west coast, anticipated the arrival of 30,000 potential customers, courtesy of the U. S. government. He wired the Anheuser-Busch main office for a trainload of beer. An indignant Busch wired back: "There will not be a war and we do not sell beer by the trainload." But there was a war and he got beer by the trainload, and he sold every drop of it. The "Green Goose Saloon" in Port Tampa also was supplied. The soldiers embarked from Port Tampa for Cuba, in all about 50,000 men. On the day the treaty was signed in August, the Noah’s Ark was destroyed by fire.
Robert Mugge - The Man
Mugge died Dec. 17, 1915, at age 63, and was buried in a newly acquired family plot in Woodlawn Cemetery. The funeral was reported to be one of the largest ever held in Tampa and was held from the family home on a Sunday morning. Robert Mugge devoted his life to the building of Tampa which he loved so well. He would invest every dollar he made in Tampa thereby giving employment to thousands of breadwinners. He was a law-abiding citizen and would not tolerate any violation of any kind by his employees. He and his estate in later years paid well over $1,000,000 in City and County taxes in addition to a large number of occupational licenses. Read more about the amazing Robert Mugge, the man and his contributions to Tampa.
The story behind the painting of Robert Mugge
At the time the Bay View Hotel was completed, Robert Mugge installed bowling alleys and pool tables on his property on Franklin Street. On a Sunday morning in 1915, a photographer appeared and wished to take a picture of the alleys. On the finished picture, in the left-hand corner, appeared Robert Mugge reading the newspaper. This being the only picture of Mr. Mugge known to be in existence, the photographer enlarged the picture and shaded in the background dark. A few years following Mr. Mugge’s death, his son August Mugge observed some paintings of former Tampa mayors on the walls of various council chambers. He secured the name of the artist from former Mayor D.B. McKay. A German artist, Wilhelm Teschner, was given permission to paint, in oil, this enlarged picture at a cost of $25. The artist had received small advances on the promised $25 and when the picture was finished the family was so well pleased they gave him an additional $75. A few months later the artist’s body was found in an attic in Ybor City, with a brush and palette in his hands. He must have died of a heart attack. Since the artist had no relatives, the City of Tampa provided a lot in Woodlawn Cemetery and friends donated money to pay for funeral expenses. A Methodist minister officiated.
Apparently, no one was aware of, or had forgotten about, this portrait taken of Robert Mugge by the Burgert Brothers photographers in 1899. The photo is part of the "Tony Pizzo" collection at the University of Florida Digital Collections, George A. Smathers Library. The photo was originally posted as "A Portrait of Robert Hugge" but upon contacting the librarian, a re-check of the back of the photo revealed that "Hugge" was a typo and it was indeed "Mugge." Although the title was corrected, the citation still carries the misspelling, "Hugge". See the citation and link to the full size photo here. Mr. Pizzo was an accomplished Tampa historian whose photos were donated to several library archives in Florida. Other photos from Mr. Pizzo's collection can be found at the University of South Florida Special Collections and the Florida Memory Project.
See a photo taken in
1899, here at Tampapix, which shows "Robert Mugge Corner" in
Ybor City. So named because of one of his saloons on the corner of
7th Avenue and 15th Street.
Robert Mugge's great-grandson, also named Robert Mugge, is an accomplished veteran music filmmaker known the world over. He's received countless honors and accolades for his work in the music documentary film industry and is holder of the Edmund F. and Virginia B. Ball Chair in Telecommunications at Ball State University.
If you're wondering how to pronounce his surname, he says it's pronounced "Muggy, like the weather." Read more about Robert at his website.
At left, Robert directs the
filming of a concert around 2010,
At right, Robert and his
wife/production partner Diana Zelman at the
Don't miss Robert's website at www.robertmugge.com!
First Lafayette St. Bridge Second Lafayette St. Bridge Third Lafayette St. Bridge The Bridge Today - Kennedy Blvd.
"Tampa's Lafayette Street bridge: Building a New South City" by Lucy D. Jones, University of South Florida
Leo Stalnaker: Fearless Fundamentalist, For Whom Life was “High Adventure", by Morrison Buck
Robert Mugge, Pioneer Tampan by Margaret Regener. Hurner, granddaughter of Robert Mugge
"Abstracts and Chronology of American Truss Bridge Patents, 1817-1900" by David Guise
Duval County GenWeb Biography of Capt. James A. Bryan
Streetcars in Tampa and St. Petersburg by Robert Lehman
In Search of David Paul Davis, by Rodney Kite-Powell
A Guide to Historic Tampa, by Steve Rajtar
Tampa, the Early Years, by Robert Kaiser
U.S. Patent and Trademark Office
Henry B. Plant Museum
Cigars of Tampa
Historic photos courtesy of
USF Special Collections Digital Archives
University of Florida Digital Collections, George Smathers Library
Florida Memory Project Photograph Collection, State Archives
Burgert Brothers Collection, HCPLC
Library of Congress Digital Collections